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The Odyssey: Book 1 Analysis



Author: poem of Homer Type: poem Views: 5

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  Tell me, o muse, of that ingenious hero who travelled far and wide

after he had sacked the famous town of Troy. Many cities did he visit,

and many were the nations with whose manners and customs he was

acquainted; moreover he suffered much by sea while trying to save

his own life and bring his men safely home; but do what he might he

could not save his men, for they perished through their own sheer

folly in eating the cattle of the Sun-god Hyperion; so the god

prevented them from ever reaching home. Tell me, too, about all

these things, O daughter of Jove, from whatsoever source you may

know them.

  So now all who escaped death in battle or by shipwreck had got

safely home except Ulysses, and he, though he was longing to return to

his wife and country, was detained by the goddess Calypso, who had got

him into a large cave and wanted to marry him. But as years went by,

there came a time when the gods settled that he should go back to

Ithaca; even then, however, when he was among his own people, his

troubles were not yet over; nevertheless all the gods had now begun to

pity him except Neptune, who still persecuted him without ceasing

and would not let him get home.

  Now Neptune had gone off to the Ethiopians, who are at the world's

end, and lie in two halves, the one looking West and the other East.

He had gone there to accept a hecatomb of sheep and oxen, and was

enjoying himself at his festival; but the other gods met in the

house of Olympian Jove, and the sire of gods and men spoke first. At

that moment he was thinking of Aegisthus, who had been killed by

Agamemnon's son Orestes; so he said to the other gods:

  "See now, how men lay blame upon us gods for what is after all

nothing but their own folly. Look at Aegisthus; he must needs make

love to Agamemnon's wife unrighteously and then kill Agamemnon, though

he knew it would be the death of him; for I sent Mercury to warn him

not to do either of these things, inasmuch as Orestes would be sure to

take his revenge when he grew up and wanted to return home. Mercury

told him this in all good will but he would not listen, and now he has

paid for everything in full."

  Then Minerva said, "Father, son of Saturn, King of kings, it

served Aegisthus right, and so it would any one else who does as he

did; but Aegisthus is neither here nor there; it is for Ulysses that

my heart bleeds, when I think of his sufferings in that lonely

sea-girt island, far away, poor man, from all his friends. It is an

island covered with forest, in the very middle of the sea, and a

goddess lives there, daughter of the magician Atlas, who looks after

the bottom of the ocean, and carries the great columns that keep

heaven and earth asunder. This daughter of Atlas has got hold of

poor unhappy Ulysses, and keeps trying by every kind of blandishment

to make him forget his home, so that he is tired of life, and thinks

of nothing but how he may once more see the smoke of his own chimneys.

You, sir, take no heed of this, and yet when Ulysses was before Troy

did he not propitiate you with many a burnt sacrifice? Why then should

you keep on being so angry with him?"

  And Jove said, "My child, what are you talking about? How can I

forget Ulysses than whom there is no more capable man on earth, nor

more liberal in his offerings to the immortal gods that live in

heaven? Bear in mind, however, that Neptune is still furious with

Ulysses for having blinded an eye of Polyphemus king of the

Cyclopes. Polyphemus is son to Neptune by the nymph Thoosa, daughter

to the sea-king Phorcys; therefore though he will not kill Ulysses

outright, he torments him by preventing him from getting home.

Still, let us lay our heads together and see how we can help him to

return; Neptune will then be pacified, for if we are all of a mind

he can hardly stand out against us."

  And Minerva said, "Father, son of Saturn, King of kings, if, then,

the gods now mean that Ulysses should get home, we should first send

Mercury to the Ogygian island to tell Calypso that we have made up our

minds and that he is to return. In the meantime I will go to Ithaca,

to put heart into Ulysses' son Telemachus; I will embolden him to call

the Achaeans in assembly, and speak out to the suitors of his mother

Penelope, who persist in eating up any number of his sheep and oxen; I

will also conduct him to Sparta and to Pylos, to see if he can hear

anything about the return of his dear father- for this will make

people speak well of him."

  So saying she bound on her glittering golden sandals,

imperishable, with which she can fly like the wind over land or sea;

she grasped the redoubtable bronze-shod spear, so stout and sturdy and

strong, wherewith she quells the ranks of heroes who have displeased

her, and down she darted from the topmost summits of Olympus,

whereon forthwith she was in Ithaca, at the gateway of Ulysses' house,

disguised as a visitor, Mentes, chief of the Taphians, and she held

a bronze spear in her hand. There she found the lordly suitors

seated on hides of the oxen which they had killed and eaten, and

playing draughts in front of the house. Men-servants and pages were

bustling about to wait upon them, some mixing wine with water in the

mixing-bowls, some cleaning down the tables with wet sponges and

laying them out again, and some cutting up great quantities of meat.

  Telemachus saw her long before any one else did. He was sitting

moodily among the suitors thinking about his brave father, and how

he would send them flying out of the house, if he were to come to

his own again and be honoured as in days gone by. Thus brooding as

he sat among them, he caught sight of Minerva and went straight to the

gate, for he was vexed that a stranger should be kept waiting for

admittance. He took her right hand in his own, and bade her give him

her spear. "Welcome," said he, "to our house, and when you have

partaken of food you shall tell us what you have come for."

  He led the way as he spoke, and Minerva followed him. When they were

within he took her spear and set it in the spear- stand against a

strong bearing-post along with the many other spears of his unhappy

father, and he conducted her to a richly decorated seat under which he

threw a cloth of damask. There was a footstool also for her feet,

and he set another seat near her for himself, away from the suitors,

that she might not be annoyed while eating by their noise and

insolence, and that he might ask her more freely about his father.

  A maid servant then brought them water in a beautiful golden ewer

and poured it into a silver basin for them to wash their hands, and

she drew a clean table beside them. An upper servant brought them

bread, and offered them many good things of what there was in the

house, the carver fetched them plates of all manner of meats and set

cups of gold by their side, and a man-servant brought them wine and

poured it out for them.

  Then the suitors came in and took their places on the benches and

seats. Forthwith men servants poured water over their hands, maids

went round with the bread-baskets, pages filled the mixing-bowls

with wine and water, and they laid their hands upon the good things

that were before them. As soon as they had had enough to eat and drink

they wanted music and dancing, which are the crowning embellishments

of a banquet, so a servant brought a lyre to Phemius, whom they

compelled perforce to sing to them. As soon as he touched his lyre and

began to sing Telemachus spoke low to Minerva, with his head close

to hers that no man might hear.

  "I hope, sir," said he, "that you will not be offended with what I

am going to say. Singing comes cheap to those who do not pay for it,

and all this is done at the cost of one whose bones lie rotting in

some wilderness or grinding to powder in the surf. If these men were

to see my father come back to Ithaca they would pray for longer legs

rather than a longer purse, for money would not serve them; but he,

alas, has fallen on an ill fate, and even when people do sometimes say

that he is coming, we no longer heed them; we shall never see him

again. And now, sir, tell me and tell me true, who you are and where

you come from. Tell me of your town and parents, what manner of ship

you came in, how your crew brought you to Ithaca, and of what nation

they declared themselves to be- for you cannot have come by land. Tell

me also truly, for I want to know, are you a stranger to this house,

or have you been here in my father's time? In the old days we had many

visitors for my father went about much himself."

  And Minerva answered, "I will tell you truly and particularly all

about it. I am Mentes, son of Anchialus, and I am King of the

Taphians. I have come here with my ship and crew, on a voyage to men

of a foreign tongue being bound for Temesa with a cargo of iron, and I

shall bring back copper. As for my ship, it lies over yonder off the

open country away from the town, in the harbour Rheithron under the

wooded mountain Neritum. Our fathers were friends before us, as old

Laertes will tell you, if you will go and ask him. They say,

however, that he never comes to town now, and lives by himself in

the country, faring hardly, with an old woman to look after him and

get his dinner for him, when he comes in tired from pottering about

his vineyard. They told me your father was at home again, and that was

why I came, but it seems the gods are still keeping him back, for he

is not dead yet not on the mainland. It is more likely he is on some

sea-girt island in mid ocean, or a prisoner among savages who are

detaining him against his will I am no prophet, and know very little

about omens, but I speak as it is borne in upon me from heaven, and

assure you that he will not be away much longer; for he is a man of

such resource that even though he were in chains of iron he would find

some means of getting home again. But tell me, and tell me true, can

Ulysses really have such a fine looking fellow for a son? You are

indeed wonderfully like him about the head and eyes, for we were close

friends before he set sail for Troy where the flower of all the

Argives went also. Since that time we have never either of us seen the

other."

  "My mother," answered Telemachus, tells me I am son to Ulysses,

but it is a wise child that knows his own father. Would that I were

son to one who had grown old upon his own estates, for, since you

ask me, there is no more ill-starred man under heaven than he who they

tell me is my father."

  And Minerva said, "There is no fear of your race dying out yet,

while Penelope has such a fine son as you are. But tell me, and tell

me true, what is the meaning of all this feasting, and who are these

people? What is it all about? Have you some banquet, or is there a

wedding in the family- for no one seems to be bringing any

provisions of his own? And the guests- how atrociously they are

behaving; what riot they make over the whole house; it is enough to

disgust any respectable person who comes near them."

  "Sir," said Telemachus, "as regards your question, so long as my

father was here it was well with us and with the house, but the gods

in their displeasure have willed it otherwise, and have hidden him

away more closely than mortal man was ever yet hidden. I could have

borne it better even though he were dead, if he had fallen with his

men before Troy, or had died with friends around him when the days

of his fighting were done; for then the Achaeans would have built a

mound over his ashes, and I should myself have been heir to his

renown; but now the storm-winds have spirited him away we know not

wither; he is gone without leaving so much as a trace behind him,

and I inherit nothing but dismay. Nor does the matter end simply

with grief for the loss of my father; heaven has laid sorrows upon

me of yet another kind; for the chiefs from all our islands,

Dulichium, Same, and the woodland island of Zacynthus, as also all the

principal men of Ithaca itself, are eating up my house under the

pretext of paying their court to my mother, who will neither point

blank say that she will not marry, nor yet bring matters to an end; so

they are making havoc of my estate, and before long will do so also

with myself."

  "Is that so?" exclaimed Minerva, "then you do indeed want Ulysses

home again. Give him his helmet, shield, and a couple lances, and if

he is the man he was when I first knew him in our house, drinking

and making merry, he would soon lay his hands about these rascally

suitors, were he to stand once more upon his own threshold. He was

then coming from Ephyra, where he had been to beg poison for his

arrows from Ilus, son of Mermerus. Ilus feared the ever-living gods

and would not give him any, but my father let him have some, for he

was very fond of him. If Ulysses is the man he then was these

suitors will have a short shrift and a sorry wedding.

  "But there! It rests with heaven to determine whether he is to

return, and take his revenge in his own house or no; I would, however,

urge you to set about trying to get rid of these suitors at once. Take

my advice, call the Achaean heroes in assembly to-morrow -lay your

case before them, and call heaven to bear you witness. Bid the suitors

take themselves off, each to his own place, and if your mother's

mind is set on marrying again, let her go back to her father, who will

find her a husband and provide her with all the marriage gifts that so

dear a daughter may expect. As for yourself, let me prevail upon you

to take the best ship you can get, with a crew of twenty men, and go

in quest of your father who has so long been missing. Some one may

tell you something, or (and people often hear things in this way) some

heaven-sent message may direct you. First go to Pylos and ask

Nestor; thence go on to Sparta and visit Menelaus, for he got home

last of all the Achaeans; if you hear that your father is alive and on

his way home, you can put up with the waste these suitors will make

for yet another twelve months. If on the other hand you hear of his

death, come home at once, celebrate his funeral rites with all due

pomp, build a barrow to his memory, and make your mother marry

again. Then, having done all this, think it well over in your mind

how, by fair means or foul, you may kill these suitors in your own

house. You are too old to plead infancy any longer; have you not heard

how people are singing Orestes' praises for having killed his father's

murderer Aegisthus? You are a fine, smart looking fellow; show your

mettle, then, and make yourself a name in story. Now, however, I

must go back to my ship and to my crew, who will be impatient if I

keep them waiting longer; think the matter over for yourself, and

remember what I have said to you."

  "Sir," answered Telemachus, "it has been very kind of you to talk to

me in this way, as though I were your own son, and I will do all you

tell me; I know you want to be getting on with your voyage, but stay a

little longer till you have taken a bath and refreshed yourself. I

will then give you a present, and you shall go on your way

rejoicing; I will give you one of great beauty and value- a keepsake

such as only dear friends give to one another."

  Minerva answered, "Do not try to keep me, for I would be on my way

at once. As for any present you may be disposed to make me, keep it

till I come again, and I will take it home with me. You shall give

me a very good one, and I will give you one of no less value in

return."

  With these words she flew away like a bird into the air, but she had

given Telemachus courage, and had made him think more than ever

about his father. He felt the change, wondered at it, and knew that

the stranger had been a god, so he went straight to where the

suitors were sitting.

  Phemius was still singing, and his hearers sat rapt in silence as he

told the sad tale of the return from Troy, and the ills Minerva had

laid upon the Achaeans. Penelope, daughter of Icarius, heard his

song from her room upstairs, and came down by the great staircase, not

alone, but attended by two of her handmaids. When she reached the

suitors she stood by one of the bearing posts that supported the

roof of the cloisters with a staid maiden on either side of her. She

held a veil, moreover, before her face, and was weeping bitterly.

  "Phemius," she cried, "you know many another feat of gods and

heroes, such as poets love to celebrate. Sing the suitors some one

of these, and let them drink their wine in silence, but cease this sad

tale, for it breaks my sorrowful heart, and reminds me of my lost

husband whom I mourn ever without ceasing, and whose name was great

over all Hellas and middle Argos."

  "Mother," answered Telemachus, "let the bard sing what he has a mind

to; bards do not make the ills they sing of; it is Jove, not they, who

makes them, and who sends weal or woe upon mankind according to his

own good pleasure. This fellow means no harm by singing the

ill-fated return of the Danaans, for people always applaud the

latest songs most warmly. Make up your mind to it and bear it; Ulysses

is not the only man who never came back from Troy, but many another

went down as well as he. Go, then, within the house and busy

yourself with your daily duties, your loom, your distaff, and the

ordering of your servants; for speech is man's matter, and mine

above all others- for it is I who am master here."

  She went wondering back into the house, and laid her son's saying in

her heart. Then, going upstairs with her handmaids into her room,

she mourned her dear husband till Minerva shed sweet sleep over her

eyes. But the suitors were clamorous throughout the covered cloisters,

and prayed each one that he might be her bed fellow.

  Then Telemachus spoke, "Shameless," he cried, "and insolent suitors,

let us feast at our pleasure now, and let there be no brawling, for it

is a rare thing to hear a man with such a divine voice as Phemius has;

but in the morning meet me in full assembly that I may give you formal

notice to depart, and feast at one another's houses, turn and turn

about, at your own cost. If on the other hand you choose to persist in

spunging upon one man, heaven help me, but Jove shall reckon with

you in full, and when you fall in my father's house there shall be

no man to avenge you."

  The suitors bit their lips as they heard him, and marvelled at the

boldness of his speech. Then, Antinous, son of Eupeithes, said, "The

gods seem to have given you lessons in bluster and tall talking; may

Jove never grant you to be chief in Ithaca as your father was before

you."

  Telemachus answered, "Antinous, do not chide with me, but, god

willing, I will be chief too if I can. Is this the worst fate you

can think of for me? It is no bad thing to be a chief, for it brings

both riches and honour. Still, now that Ulysses is dead there are many

great men in Ithaca both old and young, and some other may take the

lead among them; nevertheless I will be chief in my own house, and

will rule those whom Ulysses has won for me."

  Then Eurymachus, son of Polybus, answered, "It rests with heaven

to decide who shall be chief among us, but you shall be master in your

own house and over your own possessions; no one while there is a man

in Ithaca shall do you violence nor rob you. And now, my good

fellow, I want to know about this stranger. What country does he

come from? Of what family is he, and where is his estate? Has he

brought you news about the return of your father, or was he on

business of his own? He seemed a well-to-do man, but he hurried off so

suddenly that he was gone in a moment before we could get to know

him."

  "My father is dead and gone," answered Telemachus, "and even if some

rumour reaches me I put no more faith in it now. My mother does indeed

sometimes send for a soothsayer and question him, but I give his

prophecyings no heed. As for the stranger, he was Mentes, son of

Anchialus, chief of the Taphians, an old friend of my father's." But

in his heart he knew that it had been the goddess.

  The suitors then returned to their singing and dancing until the

evening; but when night fell upon their pleasuring they went home to

bed each in his own abode. Telemachus's room was high up in a tower

that looked on to the outer court; hither, then, he hied, brooding and

full of thought. A good old woman, Euryclea, daughter of Ops, the

son of Pisenor, went before him with a couple of blazing torches.

Laertes had bought her with his own money when she was quite young; he

gave the worth of twenty oxen for her, and shewed as much respect to

her in his household as he did to his own wedded wife, but he did

not take her to his bed for he feared his wife's resentment. She it

was who now lighted Telemachus to his room, and she loved him better

than any of the other women in the house did, for she had nursed him

when he was a baby. He opened the door of his bed room and sat down

upon the bed; as he took off his shirt he gave it to the good old

woman, who folded it tidily up, and hung it for him over a peg by

his bed side, after which she went out, pulled the door to by a silver

catch, and drew the bolt home by means of the strap. But Telemachus as

he lay covered with a woollen fleece kept thinking all night through

of his intended voyage of the counsel that Minerva had given him.





Translated by Samuel Butler






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