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The Odyssey: Book 23 Analysis

Author: poem of Homer Type: poem Views: 4

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  Euryclea now went upstairs laughing to tell her mistress that her

dear husband had come home. Her aged knees became young again and

her feet were nimble for joy as she went up to her mistress and bent

over her head to speak to her. "Wake up Penelope, my dear child,"

she exclaimed, "and see with your own eyes something that you have

been wanting this long time past. Ulysses has at last indeed come home

again, and has killed the suitors who were giving so much trouble in

his house, eating up his estate and ill-treating his son."

  "My good nurse," answered Penelope, "you must be mad. The gods

sometimes send some very sensible people out of their minds, and

make foolish people become sensible. This is what they must have

been doing to you; for you always used to be a reasonable person.

Why should you thus mock me when I have trouble enough already-

talking such nonsense, and waking me up out of a sweet sleep that

had taken possession of my eyes and closed them? I have never slept so

soundly from the day my poor husband went to that city with the

ill-omened name. Go back again into the women's room; if it had been

any one else, who had woke me up to bring me such absurd news I should

have sent her away with a severe scolding. As it is, your age shall

protect you."

  "My dear child," answered Euryclea, "I am not mocking you. It is

quite true as I tell you that Ulysses is come home again. He was the

stranger whom they all kept on treating so badly in the cloister.

Telemachus knew all the time that he was come back, but kept his

father's secret that he might have his revenge on all these wicked


  Then Penelope sprang up from her couch, threw her arms round

Euryclea, and wept for joy. "But my dear nurse," said she, "explain

this to me; if he has really come home as you say, how did he manage

to overcome the wicked suitors single handed, seeing what a number

of them there always were?"

  "I was not there," answered Euryclea, "and do not know; I only heard

them groaning while they were being killed. We sat crouching and

huddled up in a corner of the women's room with the doors closed, till

your son came to fetch me because his father sent him. Then I found

Ulysses standing over the corpses that were lying on the ground all

round him, one on top of the other. You would have enjoyed it if you

could have seen him standing there all bespattered with blood and

filth, and looking just like a lion. But the corpses are now all piled

up in the gatehouse that is in the outer court, and Ulysses has lit

a great fire to purify the house with sulphur. He has sent me to

call you, so come with me that you may both be happy together after

all; for now at last the desire of your heart has been fulfilled; your

husband is come home to find both wife and son alive and well, and

to take his revenge in his own house on the suitors who behaved so

badly to him."

  "'My dear nurse," said Penelope, "do not exult too confidently

over all this. You know how delighted every one would be to see

Ulysses come home- more particularly myself, and the son who has

been born to both of us; but what you tell me cannot be really true.

It is some god who is angry with the suitors for their great

wickedness, and has made an end of them; for they respected no man

in the whole world, neither rich nor poor, who came near them, who

came near them, and they have come to a bad end in consequence of

their iniquity. Ulysses is dead far away from the Achaean land; he

will never return home again."

  Then nurse Euryclea said, "My child, what are you talking about? but

you were all hard of belief and have made up your mind that your

husband is never coming, although he is in the house and by his own

fire side at this very moment. Besides I can give you another proof;

when I was washing him I perceived the scar which the wild boar gave

him, and I wanted to tell you about it, but in his wisdom he would not

let me, and clapped his hands over my mouth; so come with me and I

will make this bargain with you- if I am deceiving you, you may have

me killed by the most cruel death you can think of."

  "My dear nurse," said Penelope, "however wise you may be you can

hardly fathom the counsels of the gods. Nevertheless, we will go in

search of my son, that I may see the corpses of the suitors, and the

man who has killed them."

  On this she came down from her upper room, and while doing so she

considered whether she should keep at a distance from her husband

and question him, or whether she should at once go up to him and

embrace him. When, however, she had crossed the stone floor of the

cloister, she sat down opposite Ulysses by the fire, against the

wall at right angles [to that by which she had entered], while Ulysses

sat near one of the bearing-posts, looking upon the ground, and

waiting to see what his wife would say to him when she saw him. For

a long time she sat silent and as one lost in amazement. At one moment

she looked him full in the face, but then again directly, she was

misled by his shabby clothes and failed to recognize him, till

Telemachus began to reproach her and said:

  "Mother- but you are so hard that I cannot call you by such a

name- why do you keep away from my father in this way? Why do you

not sit by his side and begin talking to him and asking him questions?

No other woman could bear to keep away from her husband when he had

come back to her after twenty years of absence, and after having

gone through so much; but your heart always was as hard as a stone."

  Penelope answered, "My son, I am so lost in astonishment that I

can find no words in which either to ask questions or to answer

them. I cannot even look him straight in the face. Still, if he really

is Ulysses come back to his own home again, we shall get to understand

one another better by and by, for there are tokens with which we two

are alone acquainted, and which are hidden from all others."

  Ulysses smiled at this, and said to Telemachus, "Let your mother put

me to any proof she likes; she will make up her mind about it

presently. She rejects me for the moment and believes me to be

somebody else, because I am covered with dirt and have such bad

clothes on; let us, however, consider what we had better do next. When

one man has killed another, even though he was not one who would leave

many friends to take up his quarrel, the man who has killed him must

still say good bye to his friends and fly the country; whereas we have

been killing the stay of a whole town, and all the picked youth of

Ithaca. I would have you consider this matter."

  "Look to it yourself, father," answered Telemachus, "for they say

you are the wisest counsellor in the world, and that there is no other

mortal man who can compare with you. We will follow you with right

good will, nor shall you find us fail you in so far as our strength

holds out."

  "I will say what I think will be best," answered Ulysses. "First

wash and put your shirts on; tell the maids also to go to their own

room and dress; Phemius shall then strike up a dance tune on his lyre,

so that if people outside hear, or any of the neighbours, or some

one going along the street happens to notice it, they may think

there is a wedding in the house, and no rumours about the death of the

suitors will get about in the town, before we can escape to the

woods upon my own land. Once there, we will settle which of the

courses heaven vouchsafes us shall seem wisest."

  Thus did he speak, and they did even as he had said. First they

washed and put their shirts on, while the women got ready. Then

Phemius took his lyre and set them all longing for sweet song and

stately dance. The house re-echoed with the sound of men and women

dancing, and the people outside said, "I suppose the queen has been

getting married at last. She ought to be ashamed of herself for not

continuing to protect her husband's property until he comes home."

  This was what they said, but they did not know what it was that

had been happening. The upper servant Eurynome washed and anointed

Ulysses in his own house and gave him a shirt and cloak, while Minerva

made him look taller and stronger than before; she also made the

hair grow thick on the top of his head, and flow down in curls like

hyacinth blossoms; she glorified him about the head and shoulders just

as a skilful workman who has studied art of all kinds under Vulcan

or Minerva- and his work is full of beauty- enriches a piece of silver

plate by gilding it. He came from the bath looking like one of the

immortals, and sat down opposite his wife on the seat he had left. "My

dear," said he, "heaven has endowed you with a heart more unyielding

than woman ever yet had. No other woman could bear to keep away from

her husband when he had come back to her after twenty years of

absence, and after having gone through so much. But come, nurse, get a

bed ready for me; I will sleep alone, for this woman has a heart as

hard as iron."

  "My dear," answered Penelope, "I have no wish to set myself up,

nor to depreciate you; but I am not struck by your appearance, for I

very well remember what kind of a man you were when you set sail

from Ithaca. Nevertheless, Euryclea, take his bed outside the bed

chamber that he himself built. Bring the bed outside this room, and

put bedding upon it with fleeces, good coverlets, and blankets."

  She said this to try him, but Ulysses was very angry and said,

"Wife, I am much displeased at what you have just been saying. Who has

been taking my bed from the place in which I left it? He must have

found it a hard task, no matter how skilled a workman he was, unless

some god came and helped him to shift it. There is no man living,

however strong and in his prime, who could move it from its place, for

it is a marvellous curiosity which I made with my very own hands.

There was a young olive growing within the precincts of the house,

in full vigour, and about as thick as a bearing-post. I built my

room round this with strong walls of stone and a roof to cover them,

and I made the doors strong and well-fitting. Then I cut off the top

boughs of the olive tree and left the stump standing. This I dressed

roughly from the root upwards and then worked with carpenter's tools

well and skilfully, straightening my work by drawing a line on the

wood, and making it into a bed-prop. I then bored a hole down the

middle, and made it the centre-post of my bed, at which I worked

till I had finished it, inlaying it with gold and silver; after this I

stretched a hide of crimson leather from one side of it to the

other. So you see I know all about it, and I desire to learn whether

it is still there, or whether any one has been removing it by

cutting down the olive tree at its roots."

  When she heard the sure proofs Ulysses now gave her, she fairly

broke down. She flew weeping to his side, flung her arms about his

neck, and kissed him. "Do not be angry with me Ulysses," she cried,

"you, who are the wisest of mankind. We have suffered, both of us.

Heaven has denied us the happiness of spending our youth, and of

growing old, together; do not then be aggrieved or take it amiss

that I did not embrace you thus as soon as I saw you. I have been

shuddering all the time through fear that someone might come here

and deceive me with a lying story; for there are many very wicked

people going about. Jove's daughter Helen would never have yielded

herself to a man from a foreign country, if she had known that the

sons of Achaeans would come after her and bring her back. Heaven put

it in her heart to do wrong, and she gave no thought to that sin,

which has been the source of all our sorrows. Now, however, that you

have convinced me by showing that you know all about our bed (which no

human being has ever seen but you and I and a single maid servant, the

daughter of Actor, who was given me by my father on my marriage, and

who keeps the doors of our room) hard of belief though I have been I

can mistrust no longer."

  Then Ulysses in his turn melted, and wept as he clasped his dear and

faithful wife to his bosom. As the sight of land is welcome to men who

are swimming towards the shore, when Neptune has wrecked their ship

with the fury of his winds and waves- a few alone reach the land,

and these, covered with brine, are thankful when they find

themselves on firm ground and out of danger- even so was her husband

welcome to her as she looked upon him, and she could not tear her

two fair arms from about his neck. Indeed they would have gone on

indulging their sorrow till rosy-fingered morn appeared, had not

Minerva determined otherwise, and held night back in the far west,

while she would not suffer Dawn to leave Oceanus, nor to yoke the

two steeds Lampus and Phaethon that bear her onward to break the day

upon mankind.

  At last, however, Ulysses said, "Wife, we have not yet reached the

end of our troubles. I have an unknown amount of toil still to

undergo. It is long and difficult, but I must go through with it,

for thus the shade of Teiresias prophesied concerning me, on the day

when I went down into Hades to ask about my return and that of my

companions. But now let us go to bed, that we may lie down and enjoy

the blessed boon of sleep."

  "You shall go to bed as soon as you please," replied Penelope,

"now that the gods have sent you home to your own good house and to

your country. But as heaven has put it in your mind to speak of it,

tell me about the task that lies before you. I shall have to hear

about it later, so it is better that I should be told at once."

  "My dear," answered Ulysses, "why should you press me to tell you?

Still, I will not conceal it from you, though you will not like BOOK

it. I do not like it myself, for Teiresias bade me travel far and

wide, carrying an oar, till I came to a country where the people

have never heard of the sea, and do not even mix salt with their food.

They know nothing about ships, nor oars that are as the wings of a

ship. He gave me this certain token which I will not hide from you. He

said that a wayfarer should meet me and ask me whether it was a

winnowing shovel that I had on my shoulder. On this, I was to fix my

oar in the ground and sacrifice a ram, a bull, and a boar to

Neptune; after which I was to go home and offer hecatombs to all the

gods in heaven, one after the other. As for myself, he said that death

should come to me from the sea, and that my life should ebb away

very gently when I was full of years and peace of mind, and my

people should bless me. All this, he said, should surely come to


  And Penelope said, "If the gods are going to vouchsafe you a happier

time in your old age, you may hope then to have some respite from


  Thus did they converse. Meanwhile Eurynome and the nurse took

torches and made the bed ready with soft coverlets; as soon as they

had laid them, the nurse went back into the house to go to her rest,

leaving the bed chamber woman Eurynome to show Ulysses and Penelope to

bed by torch light. When she had conducted them to their room she went

back, and they then came joyfully to the rites of their own old bed.

Telemachus, Philoetius, and the swineherd now left off dancing, and

made the women leave off also. They then laid themselves down to sleep

in the cloisters.

  When Ulysses and Penelope had had their fill of love they fell

talking with one another. She told him how much she had had to bear in

seeing the house filled with a crowd of wicked suitors who had

killed so many sheep and oxen on her account, and had drunk so many

casks of wine. Ulysses in his turn told her what he had suffered,

and how much trouble he had himself given to other people. He told her

everything, and she was so delighted to listen that she never went

to sleep till he had ended his whole story.

  He began with his victory over the Cicons, and how he thence reached

the fertile land of the Lotus-eaters. He told her all about the

Cyclops and how he had punished him for having so ruthlessly eaten his

brave comrades; how he then went on to Aeolus, who received him

hospitably and furthered him on his way, but even so he was not to

reach home, for to his great grief a hurricane carried him out to

sea again; how he went on to the Laestrygonian city Telepylos, where

the people destroyed all his ships with their crews, save himself

and his own ship only. Then he told of cunning Circe and her craft,

and how he sailed to the chill house of Hades, to consult the ghost of

the Theban prophet Teiresias, and how he saw his old comrades in arms,

and his mother who bore him and brought him up when he was a child;

how he then heard the wondrous singing of the Sirens, and went on to

the wandering rocks and terrible Charybdis and to Scylla, whom no

man had ever yet passed in safety; how his men then ate the cattle

of the sun-god, and how Jove therefore struck the ship with his

thunderbolts, so that all his men perished together, himself alone

being left alive; how at last he reached the Ogygian island and the

nymph Calypso, who kept him there in a cave, and fed him, and wanted

him to marry her, in which case she intended making him immortal so

that he should never grow old, but she could not persuade him to let

her do so; and how after much suffering he had found his way to the

Phaeacians, who had treated him as though he had been a god, and

sent him back in a ship to his own country after having given him

gold, bronze, and raiment in great abundance. This was the last

thing about which he told her, for here a deep sleep took hold upon

him and eased the burden of his sorrows.

  Then Minerva bethought her of another matter. When she deemed that

Ulysses had had both of his wife and of repose, she bade

gold-enthroned Dawn rise out of Oceanus that she might shed light upon

mankind. On this, Ulysses rose from his comfortable bed and said to

Penelope, "Wife, we have both of us had our full share of troubles,

you, here, in lamenting my absence, and I in being prevented from

getting home though I was longing all the time to do so. Now, however,

that we have at last come together, take care of the property that

is in the house. As for the sheep and goats which the wicked suitors

have eaten, I will take many myself by force from other people, and

will compel the Achaeans to make good the rest till they shall have

filled all my yards. I am now going to the wooded lands out in the

country to see my father who has so long been grieved on my account,

and to yourself I will give these instructions, though you have little

need of them. At sunrise it will at once get abroad that I have been

killing the suitors; go upstairs, therefore, and stay there with

your women. See nobody and ask no questions."

  As he spoke he girded on his armour. Then he roused Telemachus,

Philoetius, and Eumaeus, and told them all to put on their armour

also. This they did, and armed themselves. When they had done so, they

opened the gates and sallied forth, Ulysses leading the way. It was

now daylight, but Minerva nevertheless concealed them in darkness

and led them quickly out of the town.

Translated by Samuel Butler


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