'The Devil In The Belfry' by Edgar Allen Poe
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What o'clock is it?
EVERYBODY knows, in a general way, that the finest place in the world is- or, alas, was- the Dutch borough of Vondervotteimittiss. Yet as it lies some distance from any of the main roads, being in a somewhat out-of-the-way situation, there are perhaps very few of my readers who have ever paid it a visit. For the benefit of those who have not, therefore, it will be only proper that I should enter into some account of it. And this is indeed the more necessary, as with the hope of enlisting public sympathy in behalf of the inhabitants, I design here to give a history of the calamitous events which have so lately occurred within its limits. No one who knows me will doubt that the duty thus self-imposed will be executed to the best of my ability, with all that rigid impartiality, all that cautious examination into facts, and diligent collation of authorities, which should ever distinguish him who aspires to the title of historian.
By the united aid of medals, manuscripts, and inscriptions, I am enabled to say, positively, that the borough of Vondervotteimittiss has existed, from its origin, in precisely the same condition which it at present preserves. Of the date of this origin, however, I grieve that I can only speak with that species of indefinite definiteness which mathematicians are, at times, forced to put up with in certain algebraic formulae. The date, I may thus say, in regard to the remoteness of its antiquity, cannot be less than any assignable quantity whatsoever.
Touching the derivation of the name Vondervotteimittiss, I confess myself, with sorrow, equally at fault. Among a multitude of opinions upon this delicate point- some acute, some learned, some sufficiently the reverse- I am able to select nothing which ought to be considered satisfactory. Perhaps the idea of Grogswigg- nearly coincident with that of Kroutaplenttey- is to be cautiously preferred.- It runs:- Vondervotteimittis- Vonder, lege Donder- Votteimittis, quasi und Bleitziz- Bleitziz obsol:- pro Blitzen." This derivative, to say the truth, is still countenanced by some traces of the electric fluid evident on the summit of the steeple of the House of the Town-Council. I do not choose, however, to commit myself on a theme of such importance, and must refer the reader desirous of information to the "Oratiunculae de Rebus Praeter-Veteris," of Dundergutz. See, also, Blunderbuzzard "De Derivationibus," pp. 27 to 5010, Folio, Gothic edit., Red and Black character, Catch-word and No Cypher; wherein consult, also, marginal notes in the autograph of Stuffundpuff, with the Sub-Commentaries of Gruntundguzzell.
Notwithstanding the obscurity which thus envelops the date of the foundation of Vondervotteimittis, and the derivation of its name, there can be no doubt, as I said before, that it has always existed as we find it at this epoch. The oldest man in the borough can remember not the slightest difference in the appearance of any portion of it; and, indeed, the very suggestion of such a possibility is considered an insult. The site of the village is in a perfectly circular valley, about a quarter of a mile in circumference, and entirely surrounded by gentle hills, over whose summit the people have never yet ventured to pass. For this they assign the very good reason that they do not believe there is anything at all on the other side.
Round the skirts of the valley (which is quite level, and paved throughout with flat tiles), extends a continuous row of sixty little houses. These, having their backs on the hills, must look, of course, to the centre of the plain, which is just sixty yards from the front door of each dwelling. Every house has a small garden before it, with a circular path, a sun-dial, and twenty-four cabbages. The buildings themselves are so precisely alike, that one can in no manner be distinguished from the other. Owing to the vast antiquity, the style of architecture is somewhat odd, but it is not for that reason the less strikingly picturesque. They are fashioned of hard-burned little bricks, red, with black ends, so that the walls look like a chess-board upon a great scale. The gables are turned to the front, and there are cornices, as big as all the rest of the house, over the eaves and over the main doors. The windows are narrow and deep, with very tiny panes and a great deal of sash. On the roof is a vast quantity of tiles with long curly ears. The woodwork, throughout, is of a dark hue and there is much carving about it, with but a trifling variety of pattern for, time out of mind, the carvers of Vondervotteimittiss have never been able to carve more than two objects- a time-piece and a cabbage. But these they do exceedingly well, and intersperse them, with singular ingenuity, wherever they find room for the chisel.
The dwellings are as much alike inside as out, and the furniture is all upon one plan. The floors are of square tiles, the chairs and tables of black-looking wood with thin crooked legs and puppy feet. The mantelpieces are wide and high, and have not only time-pieces and cabbages sculptured over the front, but a real time-piece, which makes a prodigious ticking, on the top in the middle, with a flower-pot containing a cabbage standing on each extremity by way of outrider. Between each cabbage and the time-piece, again, is a little China man having a large stomach with a great round hole in it, through which is seen the dial-plate of a watch.
The fireplaces are large and deep, with fierce crooked-looking fire-dogs. There is constantly a rousing fire, and a huge pot over it, full of sauer-kraut and pork, to which the good woman of the house is always busy in attending. She is a little fat old lady, with blue eyes and a red face, and wears a huge cap like a sugar-loaf, ornamented with purple and yellow ribbons. Her dress is of orange-colored linsey-woolsey, made very full behind and very short in the waist- and indeed very short in other respects, not reaching below the middle of her leg. This is somewhat thick, and so are her ankles, but she has a fine pair of green stockings to cover them. Her shoes- of pink leather- are fastened each with a bunch of yellow ribbons puckered up in the shape of a cabbage. In her left hand she has a little heavy Dutch watch; in her right she wields a ladle for the sauerkraut and pork. By her side there stands a fat tabby cat, with a gilt toy-repeater tied to its tail, which "the boys" have there fastened by way of a quiz.
The boys themselves are, all three of them, in the garden attending the pig. They are each two feet in height. They have three-cornered cocked hats, purple waistcoats reaching down to their thighs, buckskin knee-breeches, red stockings, heavy shoes with big silver buckles, long surtout coats with large buttons of mother-of-pearl. Each, too, has a pipe in his mouth, and a little dumpy watch in his right hand. He takes a puff and a look, and then a look and a puff. The pig- which is corpulent and lazy- is occupied now in picking up the stray leaves that fall from the cabbages, and now in giving a kick behind at the gilt repeater, which the urchins have also tied to his tail in order to make him look as handsome as the cat.
Right at the front door, in a high-backed leather-bottomed armed chair, with crooked legs and puppy feet like the tables, is seated the old man of the house himself. He is an exceedingly puffy little old gentleman, with big circular eyes and a huge double chin. His dress resembles that of the boys- and I need say nothing farther about it. All the difference is, that his pipe is somewhat bigger than theirs and he can make a greater smoke. Like them, he has a watch, but he carries his watch in his pocket. To say the truth, he has something of more importance than a watch to attend to- and what that is, I shall presently explain. He sits with his right leg upon his left knee, wears a grave countenance, and always keeps one of his eyes, at least, resolutely bent upon a certain remarkable object in the centre of the plain.
This object is situated in the steeple of the House of the Town Council. The Town Council are all very little, round, oily, intelligent men, with big saucer eyes and fat double chins, and have their coats much longer and their shoe-buckles much bigger than the ordinary inhabitants of Vondervotteimittiss. Since my sojourn in the borough, they have had several special meetings, and have adopted these three important resolutions:
"That it is wrong to alter the good old course of things:"
"That there is nothing tolerable out of Vondervotteimittiss:" and-
"That we will stick by our clocks and our cabbages."
Above the session-room of the Council is the steeple, and in the steeple is the belfry, where exists, and has existed time out of mind, the pride and wonder of the village- the great clock of the borough of Vondervotteimittiss. And this is the object to which the eyes of the old gentlemen are turned who sit in the leather-bottomed arm-chairs.
The great clock has seven faces- one in each of the seven sides of the steeple- so that it can be readily seen from all quarters. Its faces are large and white, and its hands heavy and black. There is a belfry-man whose sole duty is to attend to it; but this duty is the most perfect of sinecures- for the clock of Vondervotteimittis was never yet known to have anything the matter with it. Until lately, the bare supposition of such a thing was considered heretical. From the remotest period of antiquity to which the archives have reference, the hours have been regularly struck by the big bell. And, indeed the case was just the same with all the other clocks and watches in the borough. Never was such a place for keeping the true time. When the large clapper thought proper to say "Twelve o'clock!" all its obedient followers opened their throats simultaneously, and responded like a very echo. In short, the good burghers were fond of their sauer-kraut, but then they were proud of their clocks.
All people who hold sinecure offices are held in more or less respect, and as the belfry- man of Vondervotteimittiss has the most perfect of sinecures, he is the most perfectly respected of any man in the world. He is the chief dignitary of the borough, and the very pigs look up to him with a sentiment of reverence. His coat-tail is very far longer- his pipe, his shoe- buckles, his eyes, and his stomach, very far bigger- than those of any other old gentleman in the village; and as to his chin, it is not only double, but triple.
I have thus painted the happy estate of Vondervotteimittiss: alas, that so fair a picture should ever experience a reverse!
There has been long a saying among the wisest inhabitants, that "no good can come from over the hills"; and it really seemed that the words had in them something of the spirit of prophecy. It wanted five minutes of noon, on the day before yesterday, when there appeared a very odd-looking object on the summit of the ridge of the eastward. Such an occurrence, of course, attracted universal attention, and every little old gentleman who sat in a leather-bottomed arm-chair turned one of his eyes with a stare of dismay upon the phenomenon, still keeping the other upon the clock in the steeple.
By the time that it wanted only three minutes to noon, the droll object in question was perceived to be a very diminutive foreign-looking young man. He descended the hills at a great rate, so that every body had soon a good look at him. He was really the most finicky little personage that had ever been seen in Vondervotteimittiss. His countenance was of a dark snuff-color, and he had a long hooked nose, pea eyes, a wide mouth, and an excellent set of teeth, which latter he seemed anxious of displaying, as he was grinning from ear to ear. What with mustachios and whiskers, there was none of the rest of his face to be seen. His head was uncovered, and his hair neatly done up in papillotes. His dress was a tight-fitting swallow-tailed black coat (from one of whose pockets dangled a vast length of white handkerchief), black kerseymere knee-breeches, black stockings, and stumpy-looking pumps, with huge bunches of black satin ribbon for bows. Under one arm he carried a huge chapeau-de-bras, and under the other a fiddle nearly five times as big as himself. In his left hand was a gold snuff-box, from which, as he capered down the hill, cutting all manner of fantastic steps, he took snuff incessantly with an air of the greatest possible self-satisfaction. God bless me!- here was a sight for the honest burghers of Vondervotteimittiss!
To speak plainly, the fellow had, in spite of his grinning, an audacious and sinister kind of face; and as he curvetted right into the village, the old stumpy appearance of his pumps excited no little suspicion; and many a burgher who beheld him that day would have given a trifle for a peep beneath the white cambric handkerchief which hung so obtrusively from the pocket of his swallow-tailed coat. But what mainly occasioned a righteous indignation was, that the scoundrelly popinjay, while he cut a fandango here, and a whirligig there, did not seem to have the remotest idea in the world of such a thing as keeping time in his steps.
The good people of the borough had scarcely a chance, however, to get their eyes thoroughly open, when, just as it wanted half a minute of noon, the rascal bounced, as I say, right into the midst of them; gave a chassez here, and a balancez there; and then, after a pirouette and a pas-de-zephyr, pigeon-winged himself right up into the belfry of the House of the Town Council, where the wonder-stricken belfry-man sat smoking in a state of dignity and dismay. But the little chap seized him at once by the nose; gave it a swing and a pull; clapped the big chapeau de-bras upon his head; knocked it down over his eyes and mouth; and then, lifting up the big fiddle, beat him with it so long and so soundly, that what with the belfry-man being so fat, and the fiddle being so hollow, you would have sworn that there was a regiment of double-bass drummers all beating the devil's tattoo up in the belfry of the steeple of Vondervotteimittiss.
There is no knowing to what desperate act of vengeance this unprincipled attack might have aroused the inhabitants, but for the important fact that it now wanted only half a second of noon. The bell was about to strike, and it was a matter of absolute and pre-eminent necessity that every body should look well at his watch. It was evident, however, that just at this moment the fellow in the steeple was doing something that he had no business to do with the clock. But as it now began to strike, nobody had any time to attend to his manoeuvres, for they had all to count the strokes of the bell as it sounded.
"One!" said the clock.
"Von!" echoed every little old gentleman in every leather-bottomed arm-chair in Vondervotteimittiss. "Von!" said his watch also; "von!" said the watch of his vrow; and "von!" said the watches of the boys, and the little gilt repeaters on the tails of the cat and pig.
"Two!" continued the big bell; and
"Doo!" repeated all the repeaters.
"Three! Four! Five! Six! Seven! Eight! Nine! Ten!" said the bell.
"Dree! Vour! Fibe! Sax! Seben! Aight! Noin! Den!" answered the others.
"Eleven!" said the big one.
"Eleben!" assented the little ones.
"Twelve!" said the bell.
"Dvelf!" they replied perfectly satisfied, and dropping their voices.
"Und dvelf it is!" said all the little old gentlemen, putting up their watches. But the big bell had not done with them yet.
"Thirteen!" said he.
"Der Teufel!" gasped the little old gentlemen, turning pale, dropping their pipes, and putting down all their right legs from over their left knees.
"Der Teufel!" groaned they, "Dirteen! Dirteen!!- Mein Gott, it is Dirteen o'clock!!"
Why attempt to describe the terrible scene which ensued? All Vondervotteimittiss flew at once into a lamentable state of uproar.
"Vot is cum'd to mein pelly?" roared all the boys- "I've been ongry for dis hour!"
"Vot is com'd to mein kraut?" screamed all the vrows, "It has been done to rags for this hour!"
"Vot is cum'd to mein pipe?" swore all the little old gentlemen, "Donder and Blitzen; it has been smoked out for dis hour!"- and they filled them up again in a great rage, and sinking back in their arm-chairs, puffed away so fast and so fiercely that the whole valley was immediately filled with impenetrable smoke.
Meantime the cabbages all turned very red in the face, and it seemed as if old Nick himself had taken possession of every thing in the shape of a timepiece. The clocks carved upon the furniture took to dancing as if bewitched, while those upon the mantel-pieces could scarcely contain themselves for fury, and kept such a continual striking of thirteen, and such a frisking and wriggling of their pendulums as was really horrible to see. But, worse than all, neither the cats nor the pigs could put up any longer with the behavior of the little repeaters tied to their tails, and resented it by scampering all over the place, scratching and poking, and squeaking and screeching, and caterwauling and squalling, and flying into the faces, and running under the petticoats of the people, and creating altogether the most abominable din and confusion which it is possible for a reasonable person to conceive. And to make matters still more distressing, the rascally little scape-grace in the steeple was evidently exerting himself to the utmost. Every now and then one might catch a glimpse of the scoundrel through the smoke. There he sat in the belfry upon the belfry-man, who was lying flat upon his back. In his teeth the villain held the bell-rope, which he kept jerking about with his head, raising such a clatter that my ears ring again even to think of it. On his lap lay the big fiddle, at which he was scraping, out of all time and tune, with both hands, making a great show, the nincompoop! of playing "Judy O'Flannagan and Paddy O'Rafferty."
Affairs being thus miserably situated, I left the place in disgust, and now appeal for aid to all lovers of correct time and fine kraut. Let us proceed in a body to the borough, and restore the ancient order of things in Vondervotteimittiss by ejecting that little fellow from the steeple.
Editor 1 Interpretation
The Devil In The Belfry: A Tale Of Chaos And Control
The Devil In The Belfry is one of Edgar Allen Poe's earliest works, but it is a masterpiece in its own right. This short story is a perfect blend of humor, satire, and horror that explores the theme of chaos and control. It is a story that challenges the reader's perception of morality and social order, and leaves them with a sense of unease.
The Devil In The Belfry is set in the small, Dutch town of Vondervotteimittiss. The town is known for its orderly and punctual way of life, which is governed by the ringing of the town's belfry. The story begins on a beautiful Sunday morning when the people of Vondervotteimittiss are preparing for their weekly church service.
Suddenly, the church bell starts to ring in an erratic and chaotic manner, throwing the entire town into disarray. The people of Vondervotteimittiss are shocked and confused by the sudden change in the belfry's ringing pattern. The town's leaders are determined to find out what is causing the chaos and restore order to their town.
As the story progresses, it becomes clear that the source of the chaos is the devil himself, who has taken up residence in the town's belfry. The devil's presence has disrupted the town's order and threatens to destroy their way of life. The town's leaders must decide whether to confront the devil or continue to live in fear of his power.
The Devil In The Belfry explores several themes, including chaos and control, morality, and social order. The story challenges the reader's perception of these themes, forcing them to question their own beliefs and values.
Chaos and Control
One of the primary themes in The Devil In The Belfry is chaos and control. The story presents the town of Vondervotteimittiss as a model of order and punctuality. The ringing of the belfry is the town's symbol of control, and it is what keeps the town's way of life in order.
When the devil disrupts the belfry's ringing pattern, the town is thrown into chaos. The people of Vondervotteimittiss are no longer able to maintain their orderly and punctual way of life, and they begin to panic. The town's leaders are faced with the challenge of restoring order and control to their town.
The story raises important questions about the nature of chaos and control. Is chaos always a bad thing? Is control always a good thing? The Devil In The Belfry suggests that chaos and control are two sides of the same coin, and that they are necessary for a healthy society.
Another theme in The Devil In The Belfry is morality. The story challenges the reader's perception of morality by presenting the devil as a sympathetic character. The devil is not portrayed as an evil being, but rather as a mischievous trickster who enjoys causing chaos and disruption.
The town's leaders, on the other hand, are presented as moralistic and rigid. They are determined to maintain their way of life at all costs, even if it means confronting the devil. The story raises the question of whether morality is always a good thing. Is it always right to be rigid and uncompromising in the face of chaos and disruption?
The Devil In The Belfry also explores the theme of social order. The story suggests that social order is not always a good thing, and that it can be disrupted by even the smallest of changes. The town of Vondervotteimittiss is presented as a society that values conformity and obedience above all else.
When the devil disrupts the town's social order, the people of Vondervotteimittiss are forced to confront their own beliefs and values. The story raises important questions about the nature of social order. Is social order always a good thing? Is it always right to value conformity over individuality?
Style and Tone
The Devil In The Belfry is written in Poe's signature style, which is characterized by its dark and brooding tone. However, the story also contains elements of humor and satire, which lighten the overall tone of the story.
Poe's use of language is also noteworthy. The story is filled with alliteration, assonance, and other literary devices that add to the overall effect of the story. The use of repetition in the ringing of the belfry also adds to the story's sense of chaos and confusion.
The Devil In The Belfry can be interpreted in many ways, but one possible interpretation is that it is a critique of social conformity and the dangers of rigid social order. The town of Vondervotteimittiss can be seen as a microcosm of society, and the devil can be seen as a symbol of individuality and freedom.
The story suggests that social order can be disrupted by even the smallest of changes, and that it is important to embrace individuality and diversity in order to maintain a healthy society. The devil's disruption of the belfry's ringing pattern can be seen as a metaphor for the disruption of social norms, and the town's reaction to the devil can be seen as a reflection of society's reaction to change.
The Devil In The Belfry is a masterpiece of literature that explores important themes and raises important questions about the nature of society and morality. It is a story that challenges the reader's perception of chaos and control, morality, and social order, and leaves them with a sense of unease. Edgar Allen Poe's use of language and literary devices adds to the overall effect of the story, making it a must-read for any lover of literature.
Editor 2 Analysis and Explanation
The Devil in the Belfry: An Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe's Classic Prose
Edgar Allan Poe is a name that needs no introduction. His works have been celebrated for their dark and mysterious themes, and his writing style has been emulated by countless authors over the years. One of his most famous works is "The Devil in the Belfry," a short story that was first published in 1839. In this article, we will take a closer look at this classic prose and analyze its themes, motifs, and literary devices.
"The Devil in the Belfry" is set in the small town of Vondervotteimittiss, which is known for its beautiful church with a large belfry. The story begins on a peaceful Sunday morning, with the townspeople going about their usual business. However, things take a strange turn when a stranger arrives in town and climbs up to the belfry. The stranger then proceeds to ring the bells in a bizarre and erratic manner, causing chaos and confusion among the townspeople.
As the story progresses, we learn that the stranger is actually the devil himself, who has come to wreak havoc on the town. The devil's actions cause the townspeople to become increasingly agitated and fearful, and they eventually decide to take matters into their own hands. They gather together and storm the belfry, intent on stopping the devil and restoring order to their town.
However, when they reach the top of the belfry, they find that the devil has disappeared, leaving behind only a note that reads "I am off." The townspeople are left to ponder the strange events that have taken place, and the story ends with the suggestion that the devil may return to Vondervotteimittiss at some point in the future.
One of the main themes of "The Devil in the Belfry" is the idea of chaos and disorder. The devil's actions in the story are meant to disrupt the peaceful and orderly existence of the townspeople, and his presence causes them to question their own beliefs and values. The story can be seen as a commentary on the fragility of society and the ease with which it can be disrupted.
Another theme that is present in the story is the idea of temptation and sin. The devil is often associated with temptation and the lure of sin, and his presence in Vondervotteimittiss can be seen as a test of the townspeople's moral fortitude. The story suggests that even the most virtuous and righteous individuals can be tempted by the devil's influence.
One of the most prominent motifs in "The Devil in the Belfry" is the idea of time. The story takes place over the course of a single day, and the ringing of the bells serves as a constant reminder of the passage of time. The devil's actions can be seen as a disruption of the natural order of time, and his presence in the belfry serves as a symbol of the fleeting nature of life.
Another motif that is present in the story is the idea of duality. The devil is often portrayed as a figure of both good and evil, and his actions in the story reflect this duality. The townspeople themselves are also portrayed as having both virtuous and sinful qualities, and the story suggests that these two opposing forces are constantly at war within each individual.
One of the most notable literary devices used in "The Devil in the Belfry" is the use of repetition. The ringing of the bells is described in great detail throughout the story, and this repetition serves to create a sense of tension and unease. The repetition of certain phrases and words also serves to emphasize the themes and motifs of the story.
Another literary device that is used in the story is symbolism. The belfry itself can be seen as a symbol of the town's spiritual center, and the devil's presence in the belfry serves as a symbol of the corruption and temptation that can threaten this spiritual center. The bells can also be seen as a symbol of the passage of time and the inevitability of death.
"The Devil in the Belfry" is a classic example of Edgar Allan Poe's unique writing style and his ability to create a sense of tension and unease in his readers. The story's themes of chaos, temptation, and duality are still relevant today, and its use of literary devices such as repetition and symbolism make it a timeless piece of literature. Whether you are a fan of Poe's work or simply looking for a thought-provoking read, "The Devil in the Belfry" is a must-read for anyone interested in the darker side of human nature.
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