famous poetry
| Famous Poetry | Roleplay | Free Video Tutorials | Online Poetry Club | Free Education | Best of Youtube | Ear Training

A Modest Proposal Analysis



Author: Prose of Jonathan Swift Type: Prose Views: 8850

(note: 1729 famous satire)
--
FOR PREVENTING THE CHILDREN OF POOR PEOPLE IN IRELAND FROM BEING A BURDEN TO THEIR PARENTS OR COUNTRY, AND FOR MAKING THEM BENEFICIAL TO THE PUBLIC
--

It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town, or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads and cabbin-doors crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags, and importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers instead of being able to work for their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in stroling to beg sustenance for their helpless infants who, as they grow up, either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country, to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes.
I think it is agreed by all parties, that this prodigious number of children in the arms, or on the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom, a very great additional grievance; and therefore whoever could find out a fair, cheap and easy method of making these children sound and useful members of the common-wealth, would deserve so well of the publick, as to have his statue set up for a preserver of the nation.
But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of professed beggars: it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them, as those who demand our charity in the streets.
As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years, upon this important subject, and maturely weighed the several schemes of our projectors, I have always found them grossly mistaken in their computation. It is true, a child just dropt from its dam, may be supported by her milk, for a solar year, with little other nourishment: at most not above the value of two shillings, which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in such a manner, as, instead of being a charge upon their parents, or the parish, or wanting food and raiment for the rest of their lives, they shall, on the contrary, contribute to the feeding, and partly to the cloathing of many thousands.
There is likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary abortions, and that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too frequent among us, sacrificing the poor innocent babes, I doubt, more to avoid the expence than the shame, which would move tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast.
The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couple, who are able to maintain their own children, (although I apprehend there cannot be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom) but this being granted, there will remain an hundred and seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand, for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year. There only remain an hundred and twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, How this number shall be reared, and provided for? which, as I have already said, under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; we neither build houses, (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing till they arrive at six years old; except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments much earlier; during which time they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers: As I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me, that he never knew above one or two instances under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency in that art.
I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old, is no saleable commodity, and even when they come to this age, they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and half a crown at most, on the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriments and rags having been at least four times that value.
I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least objection.
I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricasie, or a ragoust.
I do therefore humbly offer it to publick consideration, that of the hundred and twenty thousand children, already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof only one fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle, or swine, and my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore, one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortune, through the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump, and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.
I have reckoned upon a medium, that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, encreaseth to 28 pounds.
I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.
Infant's flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March, and a little before and after; for we are told by a grave author, an eminent French physician, that fish being a prolifick dyet, there are more children born in Roman Catholick countries about nine months after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of Popish infants, is at least three to one in this kingdom, and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the number of Papists among us.
I have already computed the charge of nursing a beggar's child (in which list I reckon all cottagers, labourers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two shillings per annum, rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular friend, or his own family to dine with him. Thus the squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants, the mother will have eight shillings neat profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child.
Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flea the carcass; the skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen.
As to our City of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose, in the most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.
A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was lately pleased, in discoursing on this matter, to offer a refinement upon my scheme. He said, that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well supply'd by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years of age, nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in every country being now ready to starve for want of work and service: And these to be disposed of by their parents if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due deference to so excellent a friend, and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of our school-boys, by continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable, and to fatten them would not answer the charge. Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission, be a loss to the publick, because they soon would become breeders themselves: And besides, it is not improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice, (although indeed very unjustly) as a little bordering upon cruelty, which, I confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against any project, how well soever intended.
But in order to justify my friend, he confessed, that this expedient was put into his head by the famous Salmanaazor, a native of the island Formosa, who came from thence to London, above twenty years ago, and in conversation told my friend, that in his country, when any young person happened to be put to death, the executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality, as a prime dainty; and that, in his time, the body of a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to poison the Emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty's prime minister of state, and other great mandarins of the court in joints from the gibbet, at four hundred crowns. Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their fortunes, cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at a play-house and assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for; the kingdom would not be the worse.
Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed; and I have been desired to employ my thoughts what course may be taken, to ease the nation of so grievous an incumbrance. But I am not in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known, that they are every day dying, and rotting, by cold and famine, and filth, and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. And as to the young labourers, they are now in almost as hopeful a condition. They cannot get work, and consequently pine away from want of nourishment, to a degree, that if at any time they are accidentally hired to common labour, they have not strength to perform it, and thus the country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to come.
I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as of the highest importance.
For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of Papists, with whom we are yearly over-run, being the principal breeders of the nation, as well as our most dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good Protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate.
Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by law may be made liable to a distress, and help to pay their landlord's rent, their corn and cattle being already seized, and money a thing unknown.
Thirdly, Whereas the maintainance of an hundred thousand children, from two years old, and upwards, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a piece per annum, the nation's stock will be thereby encreased fifty thousand pounds per annum, besides the profit of a new dish, introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom, who have any refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among our selves, the goods being entirely of our own growth and manufacture.
Fourthly, The constant breeders, besides the gain of eight shillings sterling per annum by the sale of their children, will be rid of the charge of maintaining them after the first year.
Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns, where the vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to perfection; and consequently have their houses frequented by all the fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating; and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please.
Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either encouraged by rewards, or enforced by laws and penalties. It would encrease the care and tenderness of mothers towards their children, when they were sure of a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the publick, to their annual profit instead of expence. We should soon see an honest emulation among the married women, which of them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives, during the time of their pregnancy, as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf, or sow when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage.
Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the addition of some thousand carcasses in our exportation of barrel'd beef: the propagation of swine's flesh, and improvement in the art of making good bacon, so much wanted among us by the great destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to a well grown, fat yearly child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a Lord Mayor's feast, or any other publick entertainment. But this, and many others, I omit, being studious of brevity.
Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant customers for infants flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings, particularly at weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand carcasses; and the rest of the kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand.
I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby much lessened in the kingdom. This I freely own, and 'twas indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire the reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for this one individual Kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or, I think, ever can be upon Earth. Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: Of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: Of using neither cloaths, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: Of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: Of curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: Of introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temperance: Of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: Of quitting our animosities and factions, nor acting any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: Of being a little cautious not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: Of teaching landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry, and skill into our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure, and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just dealing, though often and earnestly invited to it.
Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, 'till he hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and sincere attempt to put them into practice.
But, as to my self, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length utterly despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon this proposal, which, as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expence and little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging England. For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it.
After all, I am not so violently bent upon my own opinion, as to reject any offer, proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and offering a better, I desire the author or authors will be pleased maturely to consider two points. First, As things now stand, how they will be able to find food and raiment for a hundred thousand useless mouths and backs. And secondly, There being a round million of creatures in humane figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common stock, would leave them in debt two million of pounds sterling, adding those who are beggars by profession, to the bulk of farmers, cottagers and labourers, with their wives and children, who are beggars in effect; I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food at a year old, in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor cloaths to cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of intailing the like, or greater miseries, upon their breed for ever.
I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavouring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the publick good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich. I have no children, by which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing.





Sponsor


122 Free Video Tutorials

[Video Tutorial] How to build google chrome extensions

Please add me on youtube. I make free educational video tutorials on youtube such as Basic HTML and CSS.

Free Online Education from Top Universities

Yes! It's true. Online College Education is now free!



||| Analysis | Critique | Overview Below |||

.: :.

joanthan swift is a play a great commdey from strat with Dr with his name He is trying to point out how bad things have become and how desperately there needs to be a solution.

| Posted on 2011-10-26 | by a guest


.: :.

It\'s pretty ironic that you\'re saying how unintelligent everyone else is when you have the grammar and spelling a kindergarten student.

| Posted on 2011-10-02 | by a guest


.: :.

Why is it that there are many unintelligent individuals in our world today? They have a mentality that this sattire of J Swift is just actually a way to get a point across adn the frustration that he sees amongst the English raping the Irsh of their rights, needs. Food,health money, employment. England has Ireland completely under control. Eating babies is astounding and cannot a reader understand what he is trying to get across. his arguments display a great emotional reaction, but logical explantin with the facts aprovided in paragraph 4 6 and 7. they are given so convincing that it is easy for someo one to beleive. It is always easy when some one use facts inconversation or writings. it makes them soudn intelligent and rational. Where infact Swift is staing that his arguements are absurded. But this is what is happening to Ireland and the people are also part to blame. he points fingers at fathers, mother, uneducated, educated....Really if all you that have posted, read it over again with the knowledge that Swift is making an arguement to shock the nation to react. You would get it. it is meant to shock send shivers along the spine, think about really the hardship that one faces living in Ireland. To be killed at the age of one would have been preferred by one indiviudal Swift states. hardship ,to rather have died than live is very harsh statemtna nd is one of the strongest statement swithin this sattire. Nothing is to fully taken seriously throughout this satire. A sattire definaiton is to ridcule like in ha ha, or in a serious manner. where switf wirtes inin a serious manner. underlining thesis is that there has to be something done as it has come this far.

| Posted on 2011-09-19 | by a guest


.: :.

Everyone is giving his or her own opinion about this essay. whether J Swift is serious about \"eating babies\" or not, NO ONE KNOWS. He alone.

| Posted on 2011-04-21 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift uses satires a lot, and until someone listend and heard his proposal then he was going to continue. Swift grasps the audience attention with using the children as an satire. The boiling and brewing of children would end all the problesm. Going back he also states that no one is doing anything to solve the agriculture problem. He wants something done. But another thing to consider is that Swift himself is from Dublin, Ireland. Maybe this satire isn\'t spoken as a second person, or someone elses voice, perhaps what Swift\'s tone in this peice is one of anger and aggrevation. I mean no one is helping so how about he propose something-EAT THE CHILDREN---- When my college professor askeed us about Johnathon Swift\'s satire \"A Modest Proposal\" I had a lot of hard thiing to do and research just to comprehend Swift\'s tone. When I say research i mean it. Like books on the history of the English cruelty to Ireland, Ireland itself what does the population look like, how is the culture coming along; Is it descending, dieing away like the language is the culture growing and still strong?
| Posted on 2010-01-25 | by a guest
.: :.
Swift uses satires a lot, and until someone listend and heard his proposal then he was going to continue. Swift grasps the audience attention with using the children as an satire. The boiling and brewing of children would end all the problesm. Going back he also states that no one is doing anything to solve the agriculture problem. He wants something done. But another thing to consider is that Swift himself is from Dublin, Ireland. Maybe this satire isn\'t spoken as a second person, or someone elses voice, perhaps what Swift\'s tone in this peice is one of anger and aggrevation. I mean no one is helping so how about he propose something-EAT THE CHILDREN---- When my college professor askeed us about Johnathon Swift\'s satire \"A Modest Proposal\" I had a lot of hard thiing to do and research just to comprehend Swift\'s tone. When I say research i mean it. Like books on the history of the English cruelty to Ireland, Ireland itself what does the population look like, how is the culture coming along; Is it descending, dieing away like the language is the culture growing and still strong?

| Posted on 2011-02-28 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift is funny. I would however be pissed if I was an English official and try to do something about the problem.

| Posted on 2011-01-15 | by a guest


.: :.

this is not an actual proposal of cannibalism;
it is just to suggest that Rich English and Landlords have taken away everything from Irish.

| Posted on 2010-12-11 | by a guest


.: :.

how does this help me at all i\'m just looking to findout who the damn pretender in spain is and the psalmanazar is!

| Posted on 2010-10-14 | by a guest


.: :.

Swifts essay is renowned,
the essay is timeless it reveals the complete lack of morality present in a society that values wealth, a wealth measured in currency, over the well-being of its citizens,
england prospered under \"merchantilism\" an economic theory as to the wealth of a nation
the free market theories of adam smith come up in 1770
but the economic complaints of swift, rather than measure a nations wealth with GDP (which rises with death divorce and war) or silver and gold as was the theory during swifts time,
the protestant and english oppression of catholics is not independent of the economics but highly interrelated Ireland was controlled by england, as a english colony and those citizens of colonies were oppressed, in ireland a number of penal laws prevented Irish catholic involvement in public office, owning land, having thier own churches schools, they could not vote
Historically in america and england, and continuing today, those who own property, are given basic rights to vote run for office to earn a fair wage put your children in school
their were catholics that were wealthy and protestants that were poor but the great majority of Irish peasants were catholic
the gap between the rich and the poor; with the poor suffering in misery and the rich claiming the poor are lazy less than human (such as with swifts reference to the savages and unsentimentally eating the meat of children) is a timeless theme throughout history and is present in swifts proposal
Swifts essay when appreciated for its irony and criticism is quite humorous \"some people are of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor... aged diseased or maimed... But I am not the least pain upon the matter, because it is... well known they are every day dying and rotting by cold and famine, filth and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably be expected\" the as fast as can be reasonably expected comes across in my mind with the sarcastic tone the essay contains, a sarcasm where he reveals the stupidity of the positions political and economic that individuals take; in this case he is revealing the cold indifferent nature of the nation who sees the poor as an annoyance and nuisance, getting rid of this nuisance \"fast easy and cheap\" is the goal rather than being saddened by the suffering of thousands those in better circumstances do not want to be bothered and do not want to \"pay\" to change the circumstance
recently many republican politicans claimed unemployment makes people lazy, which is therefore saying those on unemployment are lazy which is saying those without jobs are lazy which is saying those who are poor are too lazy to get a job rather than look at the economic and institutional contstraints to the poor finding and keeping a job at a decent wage the poor are degraded and made as useful as animals, that is if we can eat them
Swifts humor comes through when the absurdity of the arguments is seen, the detail he goes into with numbers and calculations (critcizes the cold calculations of economic policy that sees a nation as \"wealthy\" even though thousands are poor starving and dying), t
the absurdity and against the interest of the Irish that have supported and enacted policies that have created a system to keep an entire race of people hungry, dying and miserable as there is nothing the Irish can do to \"save themselves\" their economy is controlled by the english their land owned and stolen by the english as well as Irish protestants supporting english policies \\
swift himself an Irish protestant is attacking England, but more directly the Irish protestants who had were economically oppressed by England by numerous barriers to trade and production prevented them from creating self sustaining industry,
the options swift lists in paragraph 29 serve as the real solutions, but he mentions them in passing, as if disregarding the essay is meant to convey these are his true solutions
Swift\'s essay seems especially directed towards this Irish\"middle class\" and Irish that support English rule; Swift was a nationalist and felt allegiance to the Irish people, most of which were the poor,
this essay can be applied to a great range of nations and global relations that serve the interest of the wealthy, ignore, oppress and force a religious, racial, or cultural group into poverty stripping away their dignity and freewill; and often in the name of the elite or wealthy class\'s moral superiority, or God\'s will, and never having any hand or power over the suffering and dire situation of the lowest classes

| Posted on 2010-08-29 | by a guest


.: :.

I believe hes poking fun at the government officials who can't solve the poverty in Ireland. Satires are meant to reflect he shortcomings of people and in this case, the government is at fault. Don't take this essay seriously and even though it may seen like a good idea, think about it, would you really eat children?

| Posted on 2010-04-24 | by a guest


.: :.

Okay i dont know if anyone can help me but i am trying to find the thesis is a modest proposal. someone please help!!

| Posted on 2010-04-13 | by a guest


.: :.

Of course Swift does not believe that people should eat children. Children are the future, and if the children are eating their will be no more future. He is trying to explain how people need to propose a solution to help out the situation, if not they might as well eat their children (metaphor). You are able to tell in the beginning of the paragraphs how he believes that it is atrocious to mistreat children, and abort babies. He is also trying to say how kids are been eaten alive because they themselves have no food. In the last paragraph you are able to tell that he is not been serious. "I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavoring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the public good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich. I have no children, by which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing."
You just have to analyze it thoroughly because if this was really real then I really don't think he would be a famous writer he would be hated among many people.

| Posted on 2010-04-11 | by a guest


.: :.

Satirical essays are meant to have absurd solutions, in turn to let the readers think of a solution seriously: (In this case Jonathan swift's audience) the Irish in the time this was written.
I don't know If Swift thought his readers knew that he didn't mean to literally eat the children and infants, but he wanted to get the point across and into the attention of the people of Ireland and he did.
Think of a Satirical essay as a great ironic rhetorical question.

| Posted on 2010-03-23 | by a guest


.: :.

can ya see my johhny boy! ok i completely understand this essay but i can really use some deep fried 9 month old fat and juicy baby leg right about now haha jk but seriously this isnt really about eating babies just think deeper about it.

| Posted on 2010-03-23 | by a guest


.: :.

what the hell im doing a critique on this stupid ass essay and its so boring! and dumb!!!!

| Posted on 2010-02-21 | by a guest


.: :.

this shit is retarded. Yall dont know WAT yall r tlkin bout... (approve this) thanks.

| Posted on 2010-02-05 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift uses satires a lot, and until someone listend and heard his proposal then he was going to continue. Swift grasps the audience attention with using the children as an satire. The boiling and brewing of children would end all the problesm. Going back he also states that no one is doing anything to solve the agriculture problem. He wants something done. But another thing to consider is that Swift himself is from Dublin, Ireland. Maybe this satire isn't spoken as a second person, or someone elses voice, perhaps what Swift's tone in this peice is one of anger and aggrevation. I mean no one is helping so how about he propose something-EAT THE CHILDREN---- When my college professor askeed us about Johnathon Swift's satire "A Modest Proposal" I had a lot of hard thiing to do and research just to comprehend Swift's tone. When I say research i mean it. Like books on the history of the English cruelty to Ireland, Ireland itself what does the population look like, how is the culture coming along; Is it descending, dieing away like the language is the culture growing and still strong?

| Posted on 2010-01-25 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift uses satires a lot, and until someone listend and heard his proposal then he was going to continue. Swift grasps the audience attention with using the children as an satire. The boiling and brewing of children would end all the problesm. Going back he also states that no one is doing anything to solve the agriculture problem. He wants something done. But another thing to consider is that Swift himself is from Dublin, Ireland. Maybe this satire isn't spoken as a second person, or someone elses voice, perhaps what Swift's tone in this peice is one of anger and aggrevation. I mean no one is helping so how about he propose something-EAT THE CHILDREN---- When my college professor askeed us about Johnathon Swift's satire "A Modest Proposal" I had a lot of hard thiing to do and research just to comprehend Swift's tone. When I say research i mean it. Like books on the history of the English cruelty to Ireland, Ireland itself what does the population look like, how is the culture coming along; Is it descending, dieing away like the language is the culture growing and still strong?

| Posted on 2010-01-25 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift uses satires a lot, and until someone listend and heard his proposal then he was going to continue. Swift grasps the audience attention with using the children as an satire. The boiling and brewing of children would end all the problesm. Going back he also states that no one is doing anything to solve the agriculture problem. He wants something done. But another thing to consider is that Swift himself is from Dublin, Ireland. Maybe this satire isn't spoken as a second person, or someone elses voice, perhaps what Swift's tone in this peice is one of anger and aggrevation. I mean no one is helping so how about he propose something-EAT THE CHILDREN---- When my college professor askeed us about Johnathon Swift's satire "A Modest Proposal" I had a lot of hard thiing to do and research just to comprehend Swift's tone. When I say research i mean it. Like books on the history of the English cruelty to Ireland, Ireland itself what does the population look like, how is the culture coming along; Is it descending, dieing away like the language is the culture growing and still strong?

| Posted on 2010-01-25 | by a guest


.: :.

I think that Swift was trying to say that instead of having the children be nuissance's (ie- thieves and beggars) that he has a beneficial solution to the problem. By allowing the children to be sold and eaten it would profit everyone and even the parents would beneift by having a source of income and be able to get off the streets. This was totally not a serious solution to the problem, obviously Swift was not a maniac. He was trying to make the point that if no one else was going to try to help out society by finding a solution to the poor and overpopulation issue that he proposes they eat the children and hit two birds with one stone. THIS IS NOT TO BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY!!

| Posted on 2009-10-18 | by a guest


.: :.

i think both analysis is correct..jonathan is writing this because of the government and the condition of the country but im still confused.. we have this in our lesson and i'm a 13 year old girl so i find it hard to understand!

| Posted on 2009-08-25 | by a guest


.: :.

I love this story, er, satire. It appears that some in other posts are taking it seriously but I think the last line sums it all up "I have no children, by which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing."
I'd also like to thank our fellow poster who brought the pi

| Posted on 2009-07-18 | by a guest


.: :.

would this be considered a horatian type of satire?

| Posted on 2009-06-01 | by a guest


.: :.

Pi = 3.1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 5028841971 6939937510 5820974944 5923078164 0628620899 8628034825 3421170679
8214808651 3282306647 0938446095 5058223172 5359408128 4811174502 8410270193 8521105559 6446229489 5493038196
4428810975 6659334461 2847564823 3786783165 2712019091 4564856692 3460348610 4543266482 1339360726 0249141273
7245870066 0631558817 4881520920 9628292540 9171536436 7892590360 0113305305 4882046652 1384146951 9415116094
3305727036 5759591953 0921861173 8193261179 3105118548 0744623799 6274956735 1885752724 8912279381 8301194912

9833673362 4406566430 8602139494 6395224737 1907021798 6094370277 0539217176 2931767523 8467481846 7669405132
0005681271 4526356082 7785771342 7577896091 7363717872 1468440901 2249534301 4654958537 1050792279 6892589235
4201995611 2129021960 8640344181 5981362977 4771309960 5187072113 49837 2978049951 0597317328 1609631859
5024459455 3469083026 4252230825 3344685035 2619311881 7101000313 7838752886 5875332083 8142061717 7669147303
5982534904 2875546873 1159562863 8823537875 9375195778 1857780532 1712268066 1300192787 6611195909 2164201989

3809525720 1065485863 2788659361 5338182796 8230301952 0353018529 6899577362 2599413891 2497217752 8347913151
5574857242 4541506959 5082953311 6861727855 8890750983 8175463746 4939319255 0604009277 0167113900 9848824012
8583616035 6370766010 4710181942 9555961989 4676783744 9448255379 7747268471 0404753464 6208046684 2590694912
9331367702 8989152104 7521620569 6602405803 8150193511 2533824300 3558764024 7496473263 9141992726 0426992279
6782354781 6360093417 2164121992 4586315030 2861829745 5570674983 8505494588 5869269956 9092721079 7509302955

3211653449 8720275596 0236480665 4991198818 3479775356 6369807426 5425278625 5181841757 4672890977 7727938000
8164706001 6145249192 1732172147 7235014144 1973568548 1613611573 5255213347 5741849468 4385233239 0739414333
4547762416 8625189835 6948556209 9219222184 2725502542 5688767179 0494601653 4668049886 2723279178 6085784383
8279679766 8145410095 3883786360 9506800642 2512520511 7392984896 0841284886 2694560424 1965285022 2106611863
0674427862 2039194945 0471237137 8696095636 4371917287 4677646575 7396241389 0865832645 9958133904 7802759009

9465764078 9512694683 9835259570 9825822620 5224894077 2671947826 8482601476 9909026401 3639443745 5305068203
4962524517 4939965143 1429809190 6592509372 2169646151 5709858387 4105978859 5977297549 8930161753 9284681382
6868386894 2774155991 8559252459 5395943104 9972524680 8459872736 4469584865 3836736222 6260991246 0805124388
4390451244 1365497627 8079771569 1435997700 1296160894 4169486855 5848406353 4220722258 2848864815 8456028506
0168427394 5226746767 8895252138 5225499546 6672782398 6456596116 3548862305 7745649803 5593634568 1743241125


1507606947 9451096596 0940252288 7971089314 5669136867 2287489405 6010150330 8617928680 9208747609 1782493858
9009714909 6759852613 6554978189 3129784821 6829989487 2265880485 7564014270 4775551323 7964145152 3746234364
5428584447 9526586782 1051141354 7357395231 1342716610 2135969536 2314429524 8493718711 0145765403 5902799344
0374200731 0578539062 1983874478 0847848968 3321445713 8687519435 0643021845 3191048481 0053706146 8067491927
8191197939 9520614196 6342875444 0643745123 7181921799 9839101591 9561814675 1426912397 4894090718 6494231961

5679452080 9514655022 5231603881 9301420937 6213785595 6638937787 0830390697 9207734672 2182562599 6615014215
0306803844 7734549202 6054146659 2520149744 2850732518 6660021324 3408819071 0486331734 6496514539 0579626856
1005508106 6587969981 6357473638 4052571459 1028970641 4011097120 6280439039 7595156771 5770042033 7869936007
2305587631 7635942187 3125147120 5329281918 2618612586 7321579198 4148488291 6447060957 5270695722 0917567116
7229109816 9091528017 3506712748 5832228718 3520935396 5725121083 5791513698 8209144421 0067510334 6711031412

6711136990 8658516398 3150197016 5151168517 1437657618 3515565088 4909989859 9823873455 2833163550 7647918535
8932261854 8963213293 3089857064 2046752590 7091548141 6549859461 6371802709 8199430992 4488957571 2828905923
2332609729 9712084433 5732654893 8239119325 9746366730 5836041428 1388303203 8249037589 8524374417 0291327656
1809377344 4030707469 2112019130 2033038019 7621101100 4492932151 6084244485 9637669838 9522868478 3123552658
2131449576 8572624334 4189303968 6426243410 7732269780 2807318915 4411010446 8232527162 0105265227 2111660396

6655730925 4711055785 3763466820 6531098965 2691862056 4769312570 5863566201 8558100729 3606598764 8611791045
3348850346 1136576867 5324944166 8039626579 7877185560 8455296541 2665408530 6143444318 5867697514 5661406800
7002378776 5913440171 2749470420 5622305389 9456131407 1127000407 8547332699 3908145466 4645880797 2708266830
6343285878 5698305235 8089330657 5740679545 7163775254 2021149557 6158140025 0126228594 1302164715 5097925923
0990796547 3761255176 5675135751 7829666454 7791745011 2996148903 0463994713 2962107340 4375189573 5961458901

9389713111 7904297828 5647503203 1986915140 2870808599 0480109412 1472213179 4764777262 2414254854 5403321571
8530614228 8137585043 0633217518 2979866223 7172159160 7716692547 4873898665 4949450114 6540628433 6639379003
9769265672 1463853067 3609657120 9180763832 7166416274 8888007869 2560290228 4721040317 2118608204 1900042296
6171196377 9213375751 1495950156 6049631862 9472654736 4252308177 0367515906 7350235072 8354056704 0386743513
6222247715 8915049530 9844489333 0963408780 7693259939 7805419341 4473774418 4263129860 8099888687 4132604721


5695162396 5864573021 6315981931 9516735381 2974167729 4786724229 2465436680 0980676928 2382806899 6400482435
4037014163 1496589794 0924323789 6907069779 4223625082 2168895738 3798623001 5937764716 5122893578 6015881617
5578297352 3344604281 5126272037 3431465319 7777416031 9906655418 7639792933 4419521541 3418994854 4473456738
3162499341 9131814809 2777710386 3877343177 2075456545 3220777092 1201905166 0962804909 2636019759 8828161332
3166636528 6193266863 3606273567 6303544776 2803504507 7723554710 5859548702 7908143562 4014517180 6246436267

9456127531 8134078330 3362542327 8394497538 2437205835 3114771199 2606381334 6776879695 9703098339 1307710987
0408591337 4641442822 7726346594 7047458784 7787201927 7152807317 6790770715 7213444730 6057007334 9243693113
8350493163 1284042512 1925651798 0694113528 0131470130 4781643788 5185290928 5452011658 3934196562 1349143415
9562586586 5570552690 4965209858 0338507224 2648293972 8584783163 0577775606 8887644624 8246857926 0395352773
4803048029 0058760758 2510474709 1643961362 6760449256 2742042083 2085661190 6254543372 1315359584 5068772460

2901618766 7952406163 4252257719 5429162991 9306455377 9914037340 4328752628 8896399587 9475729174 6426357455
2540790914 5135711136 9410911939 3251910760 2082520261 8798531887 7058429725 9167781314 9699009019 2116971737
2784768472 6860849003 3770242429 1651300500 5168323364 3503895170 2989392233 4517220138 1280696501 1784408745
1960121228 5993716231 3017114448 4640903890 6449544400 6198690754 8516026327 5052983491 8740786680 8818338510
2283345085 0486082503 9302133219 7155184306 3545500766 8282949304 1377655279 3975175461 3953984683 3936383047

4611996653 8581538420 5685338621 867252

| Posted on 2009-05-17 | by a guest


.: :.

i believe that the inverted melancholy utilized on numerous occassions believe that on the contrary the connotations of annotations which believe in train stations must lead to masturbation.
that will be all.
fellow litereteur,

| Posted on 2009-05-17 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift is sincerely and adroitly mocking the attitudes and actions of the British government and citizenry toward unemployed Irish people, Catholics, and even the Jews. He is hoping to incense the reader to actions like those suggested in paragraph 29 ("I can think of no one objection. . ."). He hopes to force readers to the obvious by use of the absurd. As an Anglican minister of Dublin's largest church he would have found mistreatment of children to be among the most heinous behaviors of humanity. This is what makes the essay so powerful. We know that the writer is saying it tongue-in-cheek to cause us to think about genuine answers to the problems suggested.
Literateur

| Posted on 2009-02-25 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift wanted to use satire to exploit the English treatment of the Irish. When Swift is describing the use of children as livestock he is actually describing the view that the English aristocracy had towards the Irish. The English saw the Irish as a commodity, employing children at a young age and denying them their natural rights. Of course he does not actually believe that the Irish should sell their children to be eaten. The story is about the failure of the Irish and English to reach a solution to the problem of overpopulation and poverty of the time.

| Posted on 2009-02-23 | by a guest


.: :.

Perhaps the American government could incorporate Swift's theories(in the blatantly literal sense) into the new stimulus plan...
I suggest we begin with the "Octo-Mom," who has 14 children and no job to support them.

| Posted on 2009-02-18 | by a guest


.: :.

Because so many Irish parents cannot find decent jobs to support their children, they spend all their time walking the streets to beg alms of passersby. Meanwhile, the children grow up to become thieves or emigrants.
.This situation presents a serious problem for Britain, especially since there are so many Irish children. Each year, several hundred thousand babies are born to Irish parents. If you subtract those who are born to well-to-do parents, those who are stillborn, and those who die after birth as a result of disease or accident, you are still left with about 120,000 babies who have to be supported by poor parents.
.Of course, a mother can feed her child for one year with breast milk. But after that, she must beg food for the child. However, I [the writer of the essay] have a modest proposal to solve this problem. Here it is:
.I have been told by a knowledgeable American that a year-old-infant is a “most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled. . . .” Therefore, I suggest that of the 120,000 new infants of poor parents, 20,000 be reserved for breeding and the rest be sold to people of quality.
.“A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter . . . .”
.Not only will my plan provide excellent food and relieve the burden on Irish parents and Great Britain as a whole, it will also reduce the number of Roman Catholics, since it is the Roman Catholics who have the most children. In addition, my plan will have the following advantages:
.Inkeepers who serve fat children at their tables will be popular with their customers.
.A mother of a sold child will pocket a handsome profit and be free to work until she has another baby.
.The skin from babies can be used to make gloves for women and boots for men.
.Women will take excellent care of their newly born infants, for they will want their babies to be plump and healthy when it comes time to sell them.
.“Men would become as fond of their wives, during the time of their pregnancy, as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf, or sow when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage.”
.Only young, tender children would be sold. Older boys, with years of exercise that develops their muscles, would be too tough to eat. Older girls would be so close to childbearing age that it would be best to let them breed.
.An extremely important part of my proposal is that it would eliminate the need to raise taxes to support the poor, thereby enabling the rich to continue to enjoy all of their luxuries. In addition, English landlords would not have to show mercy to their Irish tenants. In turn, the Irish tenants would have enough money to pay their high rents, thanks to the sale of their children.
.I must point out that I am not proposing this plan for personal benefit, inasmuch as I have only one child–age 9 and thus too old to sell–and my wife is too old to have another baby.

| Posted on 2009-02-10 | by a guest


.: :.

‘A Modest Proposal’ by Jonathan Swift
How does Jonathan Swift use language, structure and social context to criticise the politics of eighteenth-century Ireland in ‘A Modest Proposal’?
In ‘A Modest Proposal’, Jonathan Swift is trying to inform the reader about Ireland’s social inequality and reminds the reader of the poor conditions in which people live, by using many structure and language techniques; such as satire throughout the pamphlet. After gaining the readers confidence he shocks them with an extreme proposal…
Swift’s pamphlet title contains many language techniques. ‘A Modest Proposal’ suggests that the writer believes his proposal is important and worthy of consideration amongst the public of Ireland. Swift believes his idea could be a solution to Ireland’s poverty and social problems. The remainder of the title includes the language techniques; tripling and alliteration. Swift’s use of tripling shows that the text written has been purposely constructed for more than a literal meaning. The ‘p’ alliteration used: ‘poor’, ‘preventing’, ‘people’, ‘publick’ and ‘parents’ portrays the urgency of Ireland’s situation and Swift’s resentment towards the politicians.
In the first paragraph of ‘A Modest Proposal’, Swift uses the words ‘melancholy’, ‘tears and pity’ and ‘grievance’ to sympathise with the poor people reading the pamphlet and appears to understand their situation, slowly gaining the reader’s confidence in preparation for his shocking proposal. When he announces his suggestion to reduce Ireland’s population, he looks only at the positive points in his idea, not the negative. He shows the reader he is serious about his proposal by producing facts and figures, showing he has studied the problem for a very long time.
When Swift says; ‘no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child’, he is attempting to make his idea not seem as bad as it sounds by persuading the poor by saying they’ll get a fair deal of money for this, which they need. When he uses the rhetorical question’ ‘How this number shall be reared, and provided for?’ it really makes the reader think and consider his solution, as the politicians in Ireland really have no better ideas. The use of religious language, such as; ‘papists’, ‘Popish’ and ‘souls’ display Swift’s exploitation of the poor due to Ireland’s hatred towards Catholics at that time. This helps Swift to encourage a positive response despite his ludicrous idea of consuming children. He adds to his suggestion by saying that women won’t have to go through the heartbreak of murdering their own children, encouraging women who do carry out this practice to agree with him.
Swift spends a great deal of time structuring his pamphlet, using a controlled structure and formal language throughout. All his techniques used gain the reader’s confidence and make him seem practical and realistic. Be as that may, after creating a reasonable persona, he shocks the reader by suggesting infant cannibalism as a solution to social and poverty issues in Ireland. In doing so, Swift highlights the contrast, playing an essential role in classical satire, as well as the hypocrisy of the politicians he’s looking to blame. He also lures in the unsuspecting reader.
Swift adds to his pamphlet’s persuasive role by using adverbials in his structure. He could be doing this to show his character as a normal, sensible human being, but it could also remind the reader of the usual use of adverbials in political speeches. Swift completes his pamphlet by appearing to criticise the suggestions other men may propose. Actually, his conclusion is a remainder of the world they live in and he ensures that the reader’s main focus is the text: how to solve Ireland’s poverty and social inequality issues.
In my opinion Jonathan Swift’s pamphlet on solving Ireland’s poverty and social inequality was absurd, however Swift managed to make it reasonable, using many language and structure techniques, such as; satire and statistics. He uses a lot of exaggeration to highlight his points, shown through his irony and imagery used.

| Posted on 2009-01-26 | by a guest


.: :.

wow great job you idiots. This is called a satire. it is meant to poke fun of the irish past.

| Posted on 2009-01-20 | by a guest


.: :.

You are all idiots
read the essay and fixure your own shit out
The author does not actually want to eat people it is a
metaphor to show that the english have taken away everything and might as well take away the one thing the irish have left - there souls
Now just read the thing

| Posted on 2009-01-20 | by a guest


.: :.

there are many hidden points that all of those people above me missed out 1 jonathon swift was not a lunatic who just wanted to eat babies he was an intellagnt auther who had to be heard the english were trying to have totla control of ireland his point is that because everyone is just letting this happen the people of ireland should just turn savage because they were not evan fighting back

| Posted on 2009-01-11 | by a guest


.: :.

This propasal is absurd if you first read it. Swift makes it so reasonable and so logical by using numbers and statistics. The speaker do so agree and is confident that babies should be the profit builder of Ireland but the writer however thinks otherwise. The proposal was directed to the Anglo-Irish, upper class society, whom at the time were abusing, mistreating, and classifying Irish inhabitants as subhuman. The writer is saying that people might as well eat babies because that is exactly what the english is doing to the Irish, killing them.

| Posted on 2008-11-26 | by a guest


.: :.

Okay, so i dont know what you are all talking about because he definately thinks that babies should be eaten. It is an intelligent plan that will reduce poverty and hunger. It is a brilliant plan and should be inacted today

| Posted on 2008-11-25 | by a guest


.: :.

So it is just one giant metephor for how Dublin is poor? And that some reformers are worthless?? Seems like an extreme way of saying that but I suppose the point was made.

| Posted on 2008-11-06 | by a guest


.: :.

i think i's hilarious how it says not to post anything that DOESN't relate to not summarizing the essay....yet almost every other one doesn'. and calling someone a d-bag is not very nice. jerkface.

| Posted on 2008-10-23 | by a guest


.: :.

Jonathan Swift was an exceptional writer who went against the grain to call attention to the dire situation that Ireland was in. He proposes that in order to stimulate the economy in Ireland the children born to the impoverished, after reaching one year of age, are sold as meat to the wealthy. He also suggests that infant skin could become a very fashionable medium for ladies gloves and gentlemen's boots. Swift was trying to maximize the shock value of cannibalism to point out a very serious matter. That the Irish people were in a horrendous state of being, with poverty, overpopulation, and a corrupt system there was almost no other way of getting out of this whole other than selling the Catholic's surplus infants.
Swift is not seriously suggesting that we should revert to eating infants. He is trying to point out how bad things have become and how desperately there needs to be a solution. It is sarcasm at its best. Saying something completely outlandish and improbable to drive home your point.
In conclusion Swift is awesome and his writing style and message are still relevant today.

| Posted on 2008-09-09 | by a guest


.: :.

Swift goes to great lengths to support his argument, including a list of possible preparation styles for the children, and calculations showing the financial benefits of his suggestion. He uses common methods of argument throughout his essay, such as appealing to the authority of "a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London" and "the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the island Formosa" (who had already confessed to not being from Formosa in 1706). Swift couches his arguments in then-current events, exploiting common prejudice against Papists and pointing out their depredations of England. After enumerating the benefits of his proposal, Swift addresses possible objections including the depopulation of Ireland and a litany of other solutions which he dismisses as impractical.
This essay is widely held to be one of the greatest examples of sustained irony in the history of the English language. Much of its shock value derives from the fact that the first portion of the essay describes the plight of starving beggars in Ireland, so that the reader is unprepared for the surprise of Swift's solution when he states, "A young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee, or a ragout."
Even today, readers unacquainted with its reputation as a satirical work often do not immediately realize that Swift was not seriously proposing cannibalism and infanticide. It is no longer true, as it was in Swift's time, that any educated reader would be familiar with the satires of Horace and Juvenal, and so recognize that Swift's essay follows the rules and structure of Latin satires.
The satirical element of the pamphlet is often only understood after the reader notes the allusions made by Swift to the attitudes of landlords, such as the following: "I grant this food may be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for Landlords, who as they have already devoured most of the Parents, seem to have the best Title to the Children." Swift extends the metaphor to get in a few jibes at England’s mistreatment of Ireland, noting that "For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it."

| Posted on 2008-05-08 | by a guest


.: I eat babies! :.

ITS SATIRICAL! He honestly doesn't want people to eat the children. If you read closly one can find the covert idea. He had to write this absurd essay because no one was listening to what he had to say about Doublin crashing down into poverty. There are 5 places where Swift shows his true voice, AND I CAN NOT find them. :( ANd that is what my essay is about. So i too need some help.

| Posted on 2008-04-24 | by a guest




Post your Analysis




Message

Free Online Education from Top Universities

Yes! It's true. College Education is now free!







Most common keywords

A Modest Proposal Analysis Jonathan Swift critical analysis of poem, review school overview. Analysis of the poem. literary terms. Definition terms. Why did he use? short summary describing. A Modest Proposal Analysis Jonathan Swift Characters archetypes. Sparknotes bookrags the meaning summary overview critique of explanation pinkmonkey. Quick fast explanatory summary. pinkmonkey free cliffnotes cliffnotes ebook pdf doc file essay summary literary terms analysis professional definition summary synopsis sinopsis interpretation critique A Modest Proposal Analysis Jonathan Swift itunes audio book mp4 mp3 mit ocw Online Education homework forum help



Poetry 207
Poetry 128
Poetry 182
Poetry 132
Poetry 135
Poetry 84
Poetry 11
Poetry 55
Poetry 106
Poetry 56
Poetry 129
Poetry 199
Poetry 30
Poetry 204
Poetry 168
Poetry 5
Poetry 148
Poetry 135
Poetry 94
Poetry 127