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Invictus Analysis



Author: Poetry of William Ernest Henley Type: Poetry Views: 3955

Out of the night that covers me,Black as the Pit from pole to pole,I thank whatever gods may beFor my unconquerable soul.In the fell clutch of circumstanceI have not winced nor cried aloud.Under the bludgeonings of chanceMy head is bloody, but unbowed.Beyond this place of wrath and tearsLooms but the Horror of the shade,And yet the menace of the yearsFinds, and shall find, me unafraid.It matters not how strait the gate,How charged with punishments the scroll,I am the master of my fate:I am the captain of my soul.





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||| Analysis | Critique | Overview Below |||

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Beautiful poem. Especially meaningful to me today a day after the memorial held for the late Nelson Mandela when Pres Obama quoted the lines from Invictus.
Could the confusion about "Straight the gate ? Gait ? reflects on Henley being an amputee, in other words he literally struggled to walk with a straight GAIT ? And yet he carried on in life, because he was the Master of his fait, the Captain of his soul.
Herbie Smith Polokwane South Africa 11 Dec 2013.

| Posted on 2013-12-10 | by a guest


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Henley\'s message is made clear if one gives due emphasis on both \"I\" and \"my\" in the last line.

| Posted on 2013-02-19 | by a guest


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i think that wat he trying tew say is no matter wats goes on in life yuh always in charge of your own actions and never let anybody get in yo wat at all....

| Posted on 2012-02-15 | by a guest


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i think that wat he trying tew say is no matter wats goes on in life yuh always in charge of your own actions and never let anybody get in yo wat at all....

| Posted on 2012-02-15 | by a guest


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nakakalaks ng loob ang tulang ito....
ipinapakita dito na hindi tayo dapat sumuko sa anumang hamon ng buhay.
kailangan nating maging matatag upang malampasan ang lahat ng balakid na ating haharapin upang marating ang rurok ng tagumpay....

| Posted on 2011-10-12 | by a guest


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The need to prove to others that all verse somehow affirms a belief in God is an unwelcome epidemic on these sites. W.E. Henley was an avowed atheist and secularist. To interpret his verse as an affirmation of Christian God does a disservice to the author and anyone trying to glean his original intention.
In many ways this poem was a protest to the Christian beliefs of his time to claim that a man, and not his God, controlled his own fate and decided the nature of his own soul was quite controversial in the author\'s time.

| Posted on 2011-07-31 | by a guest


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Refusing to allow circumstances to dictate and define, shrugging off the victim role and affirming integrity as an individual seems a little ahead of his time,; one wonders who he was reading at the time!
Regardless of the liberalisations within modern society it seems to me a message no less applicable now as a warning against forfeiting independance of mind.
I CLAIM MY OWN SOUL AS MY OWN- cool hey?

| Posted on 2011-04-22 | by a guest


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\"\'I am\' is Latin for God.
There for:
God is the master of my fate.
God is the captain of my soul.
The name \'INVICTUS\' however, was not bestowed upon the poem by its author. I forget who, but a poem editor of some type published it in his book and named it that.\"
no. \"Deus\" is actually Latin for God

| Posted on 2011-01-05 | by a guest


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This poem is an affirmation of one\'s control, will, and ability to choose. We often abdicate our will to religion. We are carbon-based life forms and will decompose and transform. That is inevitable, and I get it. However, for the short timespan we are have on this Earth, we can choose our response to a stimulus. This poem inspires me greatly, as are many other books, the Bilble included. The life of Christ is an a philosophical and practical reflection of the poem. Out of the night that covers me, black as the pit from pole to pole. Well Christ was accused, prosecuted, persecuted, and executed. He was also tempted by Satan. One does not get any blacker in the night as Christ\'s experience. He resisted Satan\'s temptations. He thanked His Father (whatever gods) for his unconquerable soul. His head was litteraly bloodied, but unbowed before Pontius and the Jews that accused him. In the fell clutch of circumstance, He did not cry, not winced. Beyond the earthly bounds of wrath and tears looms hell. Even on Earth most of us will be challenged and tested with the horror of the shade to come through the menace of the years. Christ implores us to use our faith when challenges with darkness of night and the Horror of the shade, and not be affraid. Now matter how strait the gate, meaning how tought it gets, or charged with punishment the scroll, meaning how much more you are facing, you can choose your attitude, your response to a stimulus. You are the captain of your fate, and the master of your soul. This does not mean Christ is not in our lived, but as the master of our souls, we can reject or invite Christ to be our personal coach and savior. I love the poem and have committed it to memory. I see it as a companion piece to my faith in Christ. I am a Jesuit and find no conflict between Christ teachings and this poem.
Pax Dei, Pax Eterna. Mens Invictus est.

| Posted on 2010-12-29 | by a guest


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This poem is an affirmation of one\'s control, will, and ability to choose. We often abdicate our will to religion. We are carbon-based life forms and will decompose and transform. That is inevitable, and I get it. However, for the short timespan we are have on this Earth, we can choose our response to a stimulus. This poem inspires me greatly, as are many other books, the Bilble included. The life of Christ is an a philosophical and practical reflection of the poem. Out of the night that covers me, black as the pit from pole to pole. Well Christ was accused, prosecuted, persecuted, and executed. He was also tempted by Satan. One does not get any blacker in the night as Christ\'s experience. He resisted Satan\'s temptations. He thanked His Father (whatever gods) for his unconquerable soul. His head was litteraly bloodied, but unbowed before Pontius and the Jews that accused him. In the fell clutch of circumstance, He did not cry, not winced. Beyond the earthly bounds of wrath and tears looms hell. Even on Earth most of us will be challenged and tested with the horror of the shade to come through the menace of the years. Christ implores us to use our faith when challenges with darkness of night and the Horror of the shade, and not be affraid. Now matter how strait the gate, meaning how tought it gets, or charged with punishment the scroll, meaning how much more you are facing, you can choose your attitude, your response to a stimulus. You are the captain of your fate, and the master of your soul. This does not mean Christ is not in our lived, but as the master of our souls, we can reject or invite Christ to be our personal coach and savior. I love the poem and have committed it to memory. I see it as a companion piece to my faith in Christ. I am a Jesuit and find no conflict between Christ teachings and this poem.
Pax Dei, Pax Eterna. Mens Invictus est.

| Posted on 2010-12-29 | by a guest


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The poet does not claim to be the master of circumstances nor of death, nor of fate as was mentioned 2010-01-09. In fact, he readily admits that he is not: hence the bludgeonings of chance and the night that covers him. On the contrary, it seems to me he is admitting that the only thing he does have control over is His own Soul. While I do not agree with all the views of the poet, it certainly is true that, in all that is around me, I only have control over my own thoughts, attitudes and actions. If I make poor decisions and suffer the consequences I have myself to hold responsible. If life hands me unexpected or negative circumstances, I still have a choice on how I deal with them.
While in prison, Nelson Mandela chose to learn the Afrikaner language, to become familiar with the culture of the Afrikaner people and to prepare himself for a better future in S.A. regardless of whether he got the chance to participate or not. When I was released from prison, he chose to forgive rather than to hate those who had imprisoned him. I believe that this was Mandela\'s claim to mastery of his own soul.

| Posted on 2010-12-11 | by a guest


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adjective of the first and fourth stanza of the poem INVICTUS

| Posted on 2010-11-04 | by a guest


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this version is correct..
strait means narrow
gate is the point of access
\"It matters not how narrow the gate\"
makes sense right??
(:

| Posted on 2010-10-18 | by a guest


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The last verse of the poem has me back and forth. All his life Henley was an Atheist. In his darkest hours was he in fact seeking God or was he adamantly holding his ground by proclaiming that he is the \"captain of his soul\"?

| Posted on 2010-09-18 | by a guest


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the author wants to tell us that in our life we should be the coach of our own life for us not to blame anybody..

| Posted on 2010-09-04 | by a guest


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I\'m still confused re \"straight the gate\", or \"strait the gate\" or \"strait the gait\". I have seen all three versions, and different versions/spellings have different meanings, so first of all we need to determine exactly how it was written. Then I would liek to understand what it actually means (in modern English). The interpretaion I will then work out for myself.

| Posted on 2010-08-26 | by a guest


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Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole.
The writer is emerging from a state of being, by using as a point of reference the word night. In theology night is an analogy meaning the “absence of light” or to not be covered by GOD’s grace \"the light\"
Black as the pit refers to the pits of hell an adjective used to dwelve deeper into the details of his Earthly status from pole to pole the North and South poles.
I thank whatever gods may be, for my unconquerable soul.
Writer giving thanks and acknowledging his creator, short, simple and to the point
In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud.
“In the fell clutch of circumstance” taken literally: a fierce, cruel, or dreadful firm grip of existing conditions, however applied to this man’s situation and what he going through, he is going to free himself. Clutches of any nature are going to grip tighter with resistance and every move for freedom. The writer wants to place emphasis on this self inflicted pain because he uses the word “winced” in the next line, meaning to draw back or tense the body, he doesn’t want to block the pain he needs, instead he recognizes it can’t be avoided and is for his personal growth.
Under the bludgeonings of chance, My head is bloody, but unbowed\"
After being freed from the “clutch”, now the strong blows of unavoidable chance and mishaps have knocked this man down. If you take a look at the word choice used in this stanza, a bludgeoning can only be accomplished with a club, meaning the strike has to be up close and in your face, it’s also unavoidable. I took a deeper look into this line of the poem and maybe went a little deeper than most would. Considering the times of the writer, religion played a big part of person’s life during this time and I remembered that in the book of Ephesians 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. The piece of amor referred to as a sword in biblical translations is what we now consider a “club” used for bludgeoning and not the long piece of metal we now use, so to block the up close attacks and deceptive schemes of Satan, GODs instructs Christians to take up the Word of GOD to counter these attacks. After thought, I think the writer is referring to Satan and the deceptive tricks and obstacles he creates and uses in our lives to bring us under his control. Satan’s ultimate goal on Earth is to make man bow to him instead of GOD.
Beyond this place of wrath and tears, Looms but the Horror of the shade,
Beyond the writers earthly hell (place of wrath), he doesn’t want to forget that on the other side there is Hades also referred to as the “Shade” an abode of the spirits of the dead.
And yet the menace of the years, finds and shall find me unafraid.\"
Accepting and preparing the rough times he knows he will face again during his physical life here on Earth, he wants the reader to know that in his present tense and future he will take on challenges without fear.
\"It matters not how straight the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul.\"
In order to interpret this line, you have to read and understand the passage Matthew 7:13 which states “Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it”
No matter how many sins he knows he has committed, which have warranted the circumstances he has faced and endured throughout his life he knows they are recorded in the scrolls of life (another biblical reference), the writer takes accountability of soul (free will) and ulitmately knows that the decisions and changes he makes going forward will determine were he goes in the afterlife.
Overall whatever struggles cast upon this man and for who reads this interpretation, give thanks to GOD for his grace because only he has the power to Save and forgive.

| Posted on 2010-08-25 | by a guest


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Out of the night that covers me.
black as the pit from pole to pole.
He survived a rough and tramatic experience that seemed as hopeless as death. Pit/Grave...pole to pole/coffin
I thanks whatever gods may be.
For my unconquerable soul.
Grateful that he survived, he is thanking the \"Gods/Chance\" Clearly not a christian!
In the fell clutch of circumstance.
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Though his misfortune and suffering are great he is saying he will not depair.
Under the bludgeonings of chance.
My head is bloody, but unbowed
He has no control over this misfortunate circumstance and it beat him up but he has not been defeated. Still \"keeping his head up\"
Beyond this place of wrath and tears.
Looms but the Horror of the shade.
He is aware that even after he gets through the current troubles that life will bring him more struggles...shade/darkness/a time of struggles
And yet the menace of the years.
Finds, and shall find me unafraid.
He will not despair in the current situation and he will not despair in the struggles that are to come he will face them head on.
It matters not how strait the gate.
How charged with punishments the scroll.
I am the master of my fate.
I am the captain of my soul.
No matter how \"good\" or how \"bad\" the circumstances that chance brings him are he is in control of how he responds to them.
If he does not know what gods/god to thank then he does not know what god to serve and does not know what that god expects of him in order for him to fufill his fate. Fate/what is meant to be. If I am the \"captian\" of a ship/soul but don\'t know where the hell I\'m going because I don\'t know my destination/god then it\'s all just kinda foolishness.
I think by master of fate and captian soul he is simply refering to having control over his additude. How he responds to what chance brings him.

| Posted on 2010-08-22 | by a guest


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Henley refers to his sould twice during the poem. First in the last line of the fist stanza and again in the last line in the fourth. Both times it is evident that his soul belongs to him, he is the captain of it. He rules it. He is thankful to whatever gods who bestowed him this wonderful gift, because even through the tragic circumstance that gave Henley the inspiration too place the poem in the darkest of settings, since his soul is his, there is hope, he can find solace in the one thing no one, and no thing can take from him. In controling this one thing Henley becomes the Master of his fate and the captain \'traditional english leadership role\' of his sole. Brilliantly stated.

| Posted on 2010-08-11 | by a guest


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An English poet of the Victorian Age has written: \"I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul\". A strong guy, would you say. The future, on earth and beyond, does not frighten him. He is the only master on board. But shortly after, this writer lost her five year old daughter, and was overwhelmed with grief. Approaching the end of his life, he did not hide his despair.
Poor master of his destiny, unable to ascertain just the following minute! His days go by, as if carried away by a tsunami, the pace of which he has no power to even slow down. He claims to be \"captain of his soul\", but ask him about the shore on which it will anchor? He probably will reply that he cannot tell...
Jonathan Edwards has the answer, just follow the links below.
In Audio x
In x

| Posted on 2010-07-27 | by a guest


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Although there are a number of interpretations to this poem, my interpretations is a little different.
"Out of the night that covers me
Black as the pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul."
This stanza refers to the sitution around the poet, which is unfavourable, difficult, not easy circumstances, and in such circumstances, the poet dedicates the strenght in him to Almighty God.
"In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed"
In this stanza, the poet further describes that he is in utter pain n suffering, but still he has not lost hope. Inspite of all the beatings in form of bad luck and situations resulting in failure, he still has not left hope
"Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds and shall find me unafraid."
Refering back to the bad situation, he says that, there is much more pain and suffering yet to come his way and the poet is willing to fight this pain as he has been for a number of years.
"It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate
I am the captain of my soul."
The poet says that it doesnt matter how far he has to go to end this suffering, and it doesnt matter how difficult the road may be, he will see to it that his fate lies in a better place as he, and only he is the one who decides how his soul will be liberated from this world.

| Posted on 2010-07-18 | by a guest


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I read this over and over and over. Until I memorized it and could say the words aloud, I did not grasp their power. "I thank whatever gods may be": finally, a way to convey a struggle that comes to an end. I don't search for the answer(s), nor do I need to define my god, but I do give thanks.
This poem touches my core. It compels me to feel pain, hold it close to my heart. Next, it literally forces me to wonder what strengths I may have, and shames me into a quest to find them.

| Posted on 2010-07-13 | by a guest


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Watching the film Invictus I felt goose pimples when I heard the words of the poem. I knew that poem by heart when I was a twelve year old boy in school in Manchester, England in 1942. I reached for my school poetry book, a cheap school edition of An Anthology of Modern Verse, published 1929, and there was the poem with the title Unconquerable. Maybe the education authorities thought one latin word too much for children. The poem has been read by me often to my children and grandchildren, under the title Unconquerable. Mr. Mandela has given it a richer meaning to us.
From Ed Jones

| Posted on 2010-07-12 | by a guest


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I think the final lines of the poem, which mendela seemed to enjoy the most, point toward a certain desire for self-control. In prison, freedom and control over ones life can seem distant. Freedom is essential to human nature. I think he saw this poem as a way to prove that he still had control, or at least some, control over his life. While I personally think this was mostly in his head, he really did not have much control over his future very much at all during his time in prison, the poem reminded me of albert camus "myth of sisyphus" work of 1942. Camus compares our lives as humans to the mythical character sisyphus who has to eternally push a rock up a hill. While I do not think this is accurate of all human lives, it could be seen as accurate for mendela's time in prison. Camus' final words are "we must see sisyphus as happy." A very interesting conclusion. But he says that sisyphus can control his attitude and accept the fact that his fate is sealed. It is the truth that sets him free. By acknowledging his inprisonment and what his exitense has to offer, he is happy. I think the same could be said for mendela. So I think a more accurate line for mendela as a prisoner might have been something like "I cannot control my fate, but I accept what the gods have given me and enjoy." Not very poetic, but you get my meaning. While I think the truth mendela finds in henley's poem is comforting and powerful, I do think it is not accurate and for mendela's circumstance of his time in prison. Great poem though nonetheless by Henley.

| Posted on 2010-06-27 | by a guest


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Just to clear up title name:
In means not. Vic or Vict was derived from the word victorious, so loosely translated, Invictus = Unconquerable.

| Posted on 2010-06-15 | by a guest


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The person who posted "'I am' is Latin for God" clearly needs to revisit a text book; God translates to "DEUS" in latin, which is derived from greek.

| Posted on 2010-06-12 | by a guest


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This may be the first time I have read this poem. Lots of analysis posted. This is what I think: courage does not suggest an absence of fear, characterizing something as a "Horror" seems to imply fear. He wants to be true to himself, he will bear the burdens he is given, he will try to do what he believes is right. Surely he made his share of mistakes. This poem may simply articulate how he would like to face the world.

| Posted on 2010-06-04 | by a guest


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No matter what one's religious or philosophical background, there is no question that the choices we make shape our path in life.
'Captain' refers to the person who is responsible in everyday use of the language. The figurehead, the boss, the one who has to answer for his team/crew/etc.'s performance.
As such, my reading of this is that while Henley knows he cannot control much of what comes his way, and some of it must have been horrific, he absolutely could control how he responed to it.
Whether he meant by "Soul" his eternal destiny, or his conscience in this life is up for debate, but is in some ways irrelevant to the point he is making to my mind.

| Posted on 2010-05-30 | by a guest


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'I am' is Latin for God.
There for:
God is the master of my fate.
God is the captain of my soul.
The name 'INVICTUS' however, was not bestowed upon the poem by its author. I forget who, but a poem editor of some type published it in his book and named it that.

| Posted on 2010-05-28 | by a guest


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I first heard this poem recited by my older brother. He recited it verbatim-having learned it in prison. For that reason, my understanding of it has been in that context. I memorized it more than 40 years ago and have always viewed it as a plaintive prayer from one who has survived incarceration. I really appreciate many of the posts in this thread that have opened my eyes to the myriad themes to which this can and likely does apply.

| Posted on 2010-05-10 | by a guest


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Invictus can mean whatever you want it to, after all you are the captain of your soul.

| Posted on 2010-05-04 | by a guest


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"OUT of the night that covers me,"- coming out of the unknow or hard times, or something bad is comming out of the night and consuming the speaker
"Black as a pit from pole to pole"- pit infers to hell very satanic like, pole to pole covers all the earth, or covers everone individually, black- unknown,
"I thank whatever gods maybe,"- I will accept the will of nature, I won't devote myself to one god I will see everyone as equal and not commit to hopeless holy wars that are against the nature of any god itself

| Posted on 2010-04-15 | by a guest


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This is a great peom, This poem by William Ernest Henley is a reflection of the authors feelings about his illness as in the first stanza he expresses how unwell he feels and compares his health to the darkness of night and a black pit. Henley refers to his misfortune or in other words his bad times as simply something that happens and he has remained strong and confident by not showing his pain by crying out aloud. He even refers to the afterlife. Once he has passed away he will be beyond the anger and tears, he relates to his life after death as a gloomy, dark or a faint place between the living and the dead and states that even though he faces the Horror of the shade, he is unafraid despite the danger or threat of his former years of life. According to the authors beliefs he concludes that no matter how a person lives his life, good or bad, a man is his own god and can manage his own destiny without any need of instruction from a Creator.

| Posted on 2010-04-05 | by a guest


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I think that it means that you are, indeed, the captain of your own soul. It may be painful and hard, but it is better to be in control of your own destiny, as it is your own, and you have control. And that no one, not even any gods or deities if there are any, but you can decide the course of your life, or the essence of your being. You have your own fate in your hands.

| Posted on 2010-04-02 | by a guest


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This poem sums up a way of life. It is by far better to face up to your actions and the results thereof. If you are willing to take the credit for the postive results of your actions, you must be equally prepared to take the blame for the negative.
Invictus guides me as much as two other pieces:
Ayn Rand:
"thinking is man's only virtue, from which all the others proceed. And his basic vice, the source of all his evils, is that nameless act which all of you practice, but struggle never to admit: the act of blannking out, the willful suspension of one's conciousness, the refusal to think-- not blindness, but the refusal to see; not ignorance, but the refusal to know. It is the act of unfocusing your mind and inducing an inner fog to escape the responsibility of judgement-- on the unstated premise that a thing will not exist if only you refuse to identify it, that A will not be A so long as you do not pronounce the verdict "It is".
And Stanley Kubrick:
"The most terrifying fact about the universe is not that it is hostile but that it is indifferent, but if we can come to terms with this indifference, then our existence as a species can have genuine meaning. However vast the darkness, we must supply our own light."

| Posted on 2010-03-29 | by a guest


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The last to lines are blatantly clear
That no matter the situation we are in we have control over our on fate( i.e we make decisions as to our future) and we control the purity of our soul (i.e we determine what deeds we perform and so are responsible for them)

| Posted on 2010-03-18 | by a guest


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Though you cannot control your fate, you can control the effect your fate and curcumstances may have on you, and in a way, you are mastering your fate. you cannot choose the weather you will have today, but you can sheild yourself from the elements of a storm

| Posted on 2010-03-02 | by a guest


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William E Henley had his leg amputated and it is said that he had to go through the operation without anaesthetics. It is not known whether he wrote the poem before or after the experience. But it is clear that he understood Cause and effect by what he states in his conclusion. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. Fate is what happens as the reaction or effect due to ones actions of the past. The fruition of actions from the past whether it is in this life time or previous. Soul is the mind that travels through infinite time and the suffering is what fructifies the past defilements. In suffering and pain man washes away his sins of the past and aligns himself to eternal freedom. One cannot write such a masterpiece by delusion. His wisdom is clearly innate and ornate.

| Posted on 2010-02-07 | by a guest


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Look for the good in things that what God would want us to do. Nobody knows what he really was saying by the last two verses. Take what good about it or leave it the choice is yours!

| Posted on 2010-02-02 | by a guest


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the word 'fate' needs to be seen in context - I do not think Henley meant the fate of that over which we have no control, rather, I think he was suggesting the fate we make for ourselves - whether we succeed or fail.
This poem is new to me and was only inspired to read it having seen a preview of the film Invictus. A film about a man whose fate, had not common sense intervened would not have been in the lap of the Gods but controlled by the unrighteous dominion of men.
However, whatever your personal take on the poem it is uplifting and makes perfect sense to someone like me - who has a degree of control over my fate.

| Posted on 2010-01-31 | by a guest




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