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The Odyssey: Book 10 Analysis



Author: poem of Homer Type: poem Views: 3

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  Thence we went on to the Aeoli island where lives Aeolus son of

Hippotas, dear to the immortal gods. It is an island that floats (as

it were) upon the sea, iron bound with a wall that girds it. Now,

Aeolus has six daughters and six lusty sons, so he made the sons marry

the daughters, and they all live with their dear father and mother,

feasting and enjoying every conceivable kind of luxury. All day long

the atmosphere of the house is loaded with the savour of roasting

meats till it groans again, yard and all; but by night they sleep on

their well-made bedsteads, each with his own wife between the

blankets. These were the people among whom we had now come.

  "Aeolus entertained me for a whole month asking me questions all the

time about Troy, the Argive fleet, and the return of the Achaeans. I

told him exactly how everything had happened, and when I said I must

go, and asked him to further me on my way, he made no sort of

difficulty, but set about doing so at once. Moreover, he flayed me a

prime ox-hide to hold the ways of the roaring winds, which he shut

up in the hide as in a sack- for Jove had made him captain over the

winds, and he could stir or still each one of them according to his

own pleasure. He put the sack in the ship and bound the mouth so

tightly with a silver thread that not even a breath of a side-wind

could blow from any quarter. The West wind which was fair for us did

he alone let blow as it chose; but it all came to nothing, for we were

lost through our own folly.

  "Nine days and nine nights did we sail, and on the tenth day our

native land showed on the horizon. We got so close in that we could

see the stubble fires burning, and I, being then dead beat, fell

into a light sleep, for I had never let the rudder out of my own

hands, that we might get home the faster. On this the men fell to

talking among themselves, and said I was bringing back gold and silver

in the sack that Aeolus had given me. 'Bless my heart,' would one turn

to his neighbour, saying, 'how this man gets honoured and makes

friends to whatever city or country he may go. See what fine prizes he

is taking home from Troy, while we, who have travelled just as far

as he has, come back with hands as empty as we set out with- and now

Aeolus has given him ever so much more. Quick- let us see what it

all is, and how much gold and silver there is in the sack he gave

him.'

  "Thus they talked and evil counsels prevailed. They loosed the sack,

whereupon the wind flew howling forth and raised a storm that

carried us weeping out to sea and away from our own country. Then I

awoke, and knew not whether to throw myself into the sea or to live on

and make the best of it; but I bore it, covered myself up, and lay

down in the ship, while the men lamented bitterly as the fierce

winds bore our fleet back to the Aeolian island.

  "When we reached it we went ashore to take in water, and dined

hard by the ships. Immediately after dinner I took a herald and one of

my men and went straight to the house of Aeolus, where I found him

feasting with his wife and family; so we sat down as suppliants on the

threshold. They were astounded when they saw us and said, 'Ulysses,

what brings you here? What god has been ill-treating you? We took

great pains to further you on your way home to Ithaca, or wherever

it was that you wanted to go to.'

  "Thus did they speak, but I answered sorrowfully, 'My men have

undone me; they, and cruel sleep, have ruined me. My friends, mend

me this mischief, for you can if you will.'

  "I spoke as movingly as I could, but they said nothing, till their

father answered, 'Vilest of mankind, get you gone at once out of the

island; him whom heaven hates will I in no wise help. Be off, for

you come here as one abhorred of heaven. "And with these words he sent

me sorrowing from his door.

  "Thence we sailed sadly on till the men were worn out with long

and fruitless rowing, for there was no longer any wind to help them.

Six days, night and day did we toil, and on the seventh day we reached

the rocky stronghold of Lamus- Telepylus, the city of the

Laestrygonians, where the shepherd who is driving in his sheep and

goats [to be milked] salutes him who is driving out his flock [to

feed] and this last answers the salute. In that country a man who

could do without sleep might earn double wages, one as a herdsman of

cattle, and another as a shepherd, for they work much the same by

night as they do by day.

  "When we reached the harbour we found it land-locked under steep

cliffs, with a narrow entrance between two headlands. My captains took

all their ships inside, and made them fast close to one another, for

there was never so much as a breath of wind inside, but it was

always dead calm. I kept my own ship outside, and moored it to a

rock at the very end of the point; then I climbed a high rock to

reconnoitre, but could see no sign neither of man nor cattle, only

some smoke rising from the ground. So I sent two of my company with an

attendant to find out what sort of people the inhabitants were.

  "The men when they got on shore followed a level road by which the

people draw their firewood from the mountains into the town, till

presently they met a young woman who had come outside to fetch

water, and who was daughter to a Laestrygonian named Antiphates. She

was going to the fountain Artacia from which the people bring in their

water, and when my men had come close up to her, they asked her who

the king of that country might be, and over what kind of people he

ruled; so she directed them to her father's house, but when they got

there they found his wife to be a giantess as huge as a mountain,

and they were horrified at the sight of her.

  "She at once called her husband Antiphates from the place of

assembly, and forthwith he set about killing my men. He snatched up

one of them, and began to make his dinner off him then and there,

whereon the other two ran back to the ships as fast as ever they

could. But Antiphates raised a hue and cry after them, and thousands

of sturdy Laestrygonians sprang up from every quarter- ogres, not men.

They threw vast rocks at us from the cliffs as though they had been

mere stones, and I heard the horrid sound of the ships crunching up

against one another, and the death cries of my men, as the

Laestrygonians speared them like fishes and took them home to eat

them. While they were thus killing my men within the harbour I drew my

sword, cut the cable of my own ship, and told my men to row with alf

their might if they too would not fare like the rest; so they laid out

for their lives, and we were thankful enough when we got into open

water out of reach of the rocks they hurled at us. As for the others

there was not one of them left.

  "Thence we sailed sadly on, glad to have escaped death, though we

had lost our comrades, and came to the Aeaean island, where Circe

lives a great and cunning goddess who is own sister to the magician

Aeetes- for they are both children of the sun by Perse, who is

daughter to Oceanus. We brought our ship into a safe harbour without a

word, for some god guided us thither, and having landed we there for

two days and two nights, worn out in body and mind. When the morning

of the third day came I took my spear and my sword, and went away from

the ship to reconnoitre, and see if I could discover signs of human

handiwork, or hear the sound of voices. Climbing to the top of a

high look-out I espied the smoke of Circe's house rising upwards

amid a dense forest of trees, and when I saw this I doubted whether,

having seen the smoke, I would not go on at once and find out more,

but in the end I deemed it best to go back to the ship, give the men

their dinners, and send some of them instead of going myself.

  "When I had nearly got back to the ship some god took pity upon my

solitude, and sent a fine antlered stag right into the middle of my

path. He was coming down his pasture in the forest to drink of the

river, for the heat of the sun drove him, and as he passed I struck

him in the middle of the back; the bronze point of the spear went

clean through him, and he lay groaning in the dust until the life went

out of him. Then I set my foot upon him, drew my spear from the wound,

and laid it down; I also gathered rough grass and rushes and twisted

them into a fathom or so of good stout rope, with which I bound the

four feet of the noble creature together; having so done I hung him

round my neck and walked back to the ship leaning upon my spear, for

the stag was much too big for me to be able to carry him on my

shoulder, steadying him with one hand. As I threw him down in front of

the ship, I called the men and spoke cheeringly man by man to each

of them. 'Look here my friends,' said I, 'we are not going to die so

much before our time after all, and at any rate we will not starve

so long as we have got something to eat and drink on board.' On this

they uncovered their heads upon the sea shore and admired the stag,

for he was indeed a splendid fellow. Then, when they had feasted their

eyes upon him sufficiently, they washed their hands and began to

cook him for dinner.

  "Thus through the livelong day to the going down of the sun we

stayed there eating and drinking our fill, but when the sun went

down and it came on dark, we camped upon the sea shore. When the child

of morning, fingered Dawn, appeared, I called a council and said,

'My friends, we are in very great difficulties; listen therefore to

me. We have no idea where the sun either sets or rises, so that we

do not even know East from West. I see no way out of it; nevertheless,

we must try and find one. We are certainly on an island, for I went as

high as I could this morning, and saw the sea reaching all round it to

the horizon; it lies low, but towards the middle I saw smoke rising

from out of a thick forest of trees.'

  "Their hearts sank as they heard me, for they remembered how they

had been treated by the Laestrygonian Antiphates, and by the savage

ogre Polyphemus. They wept bitterly in their dismay, but there was

nothing to be got by crying, so I divided them into two companies

and set a captain over each; I gave one company to Eurylochus, while I

took command of the other myself. Then we cast lots in a helmet, and

the lot fell upon Eurylochus; so he set out with his twenty-two men,

and they wept, as also did we who were left behind.

  "When they reached Circe's house they found it built of cut

stones, on a site that could be seen from far, in the middle of the

forest. There were wild mountain wolves and lions prowling all round

it- poor bewitched creatures whom she had tamed by her enchantments

and drugged into subjection. They did not attack my men, but wagged

their great tails, fawned upon them, and rubbed their noses lovingly

against them. As hounds crowd round their master when they see him

coming from dinner- for they know he will bring them something- even

so did these wolves and lions with their great claws fawn upon my men,

but the men were terribly frightened at seeing such strange creatures.

Presently they reached the gates of the goddess's house, and as they

stood there they could hear Circe within, singing most beautifully

as she worked at her loom, making a web so fine, so soft, and of

such dazzling colours as no one but a goddess could weave. On this

Polites, whom I valued and trusted more than any other of my men,

said, 'There is some one inside working at a loom and singing most

beautifully; the whole place resounds with it, let us call her and see

whether she is woman or goddess.'

  "They called her and she came down, unfastened the door, and bade

them enter. They, thinking no evil, followed her, all except

Eurylochus, who suspected mischief and stayed outside. When she had

got them into her house, she set them upon benches and seats and mixed

them a mess with cheese, honey, meal, and Pramnian but she drugged

it with wicked poisons to make them forget their homes, and when

they had drunk she turned them into pigs by a stroke of her wand,

and shut them up in her pigsties. They were like pigs-head, hair,

and all, and they grunted just as pigs do; but their senses were the

same as before, and they remembered everything.

  "Thus then were they shut up squealing, and Circe threw them some

acorns and beech masts such as pigs eat, but Eurylochus hurried back

to tell me about the sad fate of our comrades. He was so overcome with

dismay that though he tried to speak he could find no words to do

so; his eyes filled with tears and he could only sob and sigh, till at

last we forced his story out of him, and he told us what had

happened to the others.

  "'We went,' said he, as you told us, through the forest, and in

the middle of it there was a fine house built with cut stones in a

place that could be seen from far. There we found a woman, or else she

was a goddess, working at her loom and singing sweetly; so the men

shouted to her and called her, whereon she at once came down, opened

the door, and invited us in. The others did not suspect any mischief

so they followed her into the house, but I stayed where I was, for I

thought there might be some treachery. From that moment I saw them

no more, for not one of them ever came out, though I sat a long time

watching for them.'

  "Then I took my sword of bronze and slung it over my shoulders; I

also took my bow, and told Eurylochus to come back with me and show me

the way. But he laid hold of me with both his hands and spoke

piteously, saying, 'Sir, do not force me to go with you, but let me

stay here, for I know you will not bring one of them back with you,

nor even return alive yourself; let us rather see if we cannot

escape at any rate with the few that are left us, for we may still

save our lives.'

  "'Stay where you are, then, 'answered I, 'eating and drinking at the

ship, but I must go, for I am most urgently bound to do so.'

  "With this I left the ship and went up inland. When I got through

the charmed grove, and was near the great house of the enchantress

Circe, I met Mercury with his golden wand, disguised as a young man in

the hey-day of his youth and beauty with the down just coming upon his

face. He came up to me and took my hand within his own, saying, 'My

poor unhappy man, whither are you going over this mountain top,

alone and without knowing the way? Your men are shut up in Circe's

pigsties, like so many wild boars in their lairs. You surely do not

fancy that you can set them free? I can tell you that you will never

get back and will have to stay there with the rest of them. But

never mind, I will protect you and get you out of your difficulty.

Take this herb, which is one of great virtue, and keep it about you

when you go to Circe's house, it will be a talisman to you against

every kind of mischief.

  "'And I will tell you of all the wicked witchcraft that Circe will

try to practise upon you. She will mix a mess for you to drink, and

she will drug the meal with which she makes it, but she will not be

able to charm you, for the virtue of the herb that I shall give you

will prevent her spells from working. I will tell you all about it.

When Circe strikes you with her wand, draw your sword and spring

upon her as though you were goings to kill her. She will then be

frightened and will desire you to go to bed with her; on this you must

not point blank refuse her, for you want her to set your companions

free, and to take good care also of yourself, but you make her swear

solemnly by all the blessed that she will plot no further mischief

against you, or else when she has got you naked she will unman you and

make you fit for nothing.'

  "As he spoke he pulled the herb out of the ground an showed me

what it was like. The root was black, while the flower was as white as

milk; the gods call it Moly, and mortal men cannot uproot it, but

the gods can do whatever they like.

  "Then Mercury went back to high Olympus passing over the wooded

island; but I fared onward to the house of Circe, and my heart was

clouded with care as I walked along. When I got to the gates I stood

there and called the goddess, and as soon as she heard me she came

down, opened the door, and asked me to come in; so I followed her-

much troubled in my mind. She set me on a richly decorated seat inlaid

with silver, there was a footstool also under my feet, and she mixed a

mess in a golden goblet for me to drink; but she drugged it, for she

meant me mischief. When she had given it me, and I had drunk it

without its charming me, she struck she, struck me with her wand.

'There now,' she cried, 'be off to the pigsty, and make your lair with

the rest of them.'

  "But I rushed at her with my sword drawn as though I would kill her,

whereon she fell with a loud scream, clasped my knees, and spoke

piteously, saying, 'Who and whence are you? from what place and people

have you come? How can it be that my drugs have no power to charm you?

Never yet was any man able to stand so much as a taste of the herb I

gave you; you must be spell-proof; surely you can be none other than

the bold hero Ulysses, who Mercury always said would come here some

day with his ship while on his way home form Troy; so be it then;

sheathe your sword and let us go to bed, that we may make friends

and learn to trust each other.'

  "And I answered, 'Circe, how can you expect me to be friendly with

you when you have just been turning all my men into pigs? And now that

you have got me here myself, you mean me mischief when you ask me to

go to bed with you, and will unman me and make me fit for nothing. I

shall certainly not consent to go to bed with you unless you will

first take your solemn oath to plot no further harm against me.'

  "So she swore at once as I had told her, and when she had

completed her oath then I went to bed with her.

  "Meanwhile her four servants, who are her housemaids, set about

their work. They are the children of the groves and fountains, and

of the holy waters that run down into the sea. One of them spread a

fair purple cloth over a seat, and laid a carpet underneath it.

Another brought tables of silver up to the seats, and set them with

baskets of gold. A third mixed some sweet wine with water in a

silver bowl and put golden cups upon the tables, while the fourth

she brought in water and set it to boil in a large cauldron over a

good fire which she had lighted. When the water in the cauldron was

boiling, she poured cold into it till it was just as I liked it, and

then she set me in a bath and began washing me from the cauldron about

the head and shoulders, to take the tire and stiffness out of my

limbs. As soon as she had done washing me and anointing me with oil,

she arrayed me in a good cloak and shirt and led me to a richly

decorated seat inlaid with silver; there was a footstool also under my

feet. A maid servant then brought me water in a beautiful golden

ewer and poured it into a silver basin for me to wash my hands, and

she drew a clean table beside me; an upper servant brought me bread

and offered me many things of what there was in the house, and then

Circe bade me eat, but I would not, and sat without heeding what was

before me, still moody and suspicious.

  "When Circe saw me sitting there without eating, and in great grief,

she came to me and said, 'Ulysses, why do you sit like that as

though you were dumb, gnawing at your own heart, and refusing both

meat and drink? Is it that you are still suspicious? You ought not

to be, for I have already sworn solemnly that I will not hurt you.'

  "And I said, 'Circe, no man with any sense of what is right can

think of either eating or drinking in your house until you have set

his friends free and let him see them. If you want me to eat and

drink, you must free my men and bring them to me that I may see them

with my own eyes.'

  "When I had said this she went straight through the court with her

wand in her hand and opened the pigsty doors. My men came out like

so many prime hogs and stood looking at her, but she went about

among them and anointed each with a second drug, whereon the

bristles that the bad drug had given them fell off, and they became

men again, younger than they were before, and much taller and better

looking. They knew me at once, seized me each of them by the hand, and

wept for joy till the whole house was filled with the sound of their

hullabalooing, and Circe herself was so sorry for them that she came

up to me and said, 'Ulysses, noble son of Laertes, go back at once

to the sea where you have left your ship, and first draw it on to

the land. Then, hide all your ship's gear and property in some cave,

and come back here with your men.'

  "I agreed to this, so I went back to the sea shore, and found the

men at the ship weeping and wailing most piteously. When they saw me

the silly blubbering fellows began frisking round me as calves break

out and gambol round their mothers, when they see them coming home

to be milked after they have been feeding all day, and the homestead

resounds with their lowing. They seemed as glad to see me as though

they had got back to their own rugged Ithaca, where they had been born

and bred. 'Sir,' said the affectionate creatures, 'we are as glad to

see you back as though we had got safe home to Ithaca; but tell us all

about the fate of our comrades.'

  "I spoke comfortingly to them and said, 'We must draw our ship on to

the land, and hide the ship's gear with all our property in some cave;

then come with me all of you as fast as you can to Circe's house,

where you will find your comrades eating and drinking in the midst

of great abundance.'

  "On this the men would have come with me at once, but Eurylochus

tried to hold them back and said, 'Alas, poor wretches that we are,

what will become of us? Rush not on your ruin by going to the house of

Circe, who will turn us all into pigs or wolves or lions, and we shall

have to keep guard over her house. Remember how the Cyclops treated us

when our comrades went inside his cave, and Ulysses with them. It

was all through his sheer folly that those men lost their lives.'

  "When I heard him I was in two minds whether or no to draw the

keen blade that hung by my sturdy thigh and cut his head off in

spite of his being a near relation of my own; but the men interceded

for him and said, 'Sir, if it may so be, let this fellow stay here and

mind the ship, but take the rest of us with you to Circe's house.'

  "On this we all went inland, and Eurylochus was not left behind

after all, but came on too, for he was frightened by the severe

reprimand that I had given him.

  "Meanwhile Circe had been seeing that the men who had been left

behind were washed and anointed with olive oil; she had also given

them woollen cloaks and shirts, and when we came we found them all

comfortably at dinner in her house. As soon as the men saw each

other face to face and knew one another, they wept for joy and cried

aloud till the whole palace rang again. Thereon Circe came up to me

and said, 'Ulysses, noble son of Laertes, tell your men to leave off

crying; I know how much you have all of you suffered at sea, and how

ill you have fared among cruel savages on the mainland, but that is

over now, so stay here, and eat and drink till you are once more as

strong and hearty as you were when you left Ithaca; for at present you

are weakened both in body and mind; you keep all the time thinking

of the hardships- you have suffered during your travels, so that you

have no more cheerfulness left in you.'

  "Thus did she speak and we assented. We stayed with Circe for a

whole twelvemonth feasting upon an untold quantity both of meat and

wine. But when the year had passed in the waning of moons and the long

days had come round, my men called me apart and said, 'Sir, it is time

you began to think about going home, if so be you are to be spared

to see your house and native country at all.'

  "Thus did they speak and I assented. Thereon through the livelong

day to the going down of the sun we feasted our fill on meat and wine,

but when the sun went down and it came on dark the men laid themselves

down to sleep in the covered cloisters. I, however, after I had got

into bed with Circe, besought her by her knees, and the goddess

listened to what I had got to say. 'Circe,' said I, 'please to keep

the promise you made me about furthering me on my homeward voyage. I

want to get back and so do my men, they are always pestering me with

their complaints as soon as ever your back is turned.'

  "And the goddess answered, 'Ulysses, noble son of Laertes, you shall

none of you stay here any longer if you do not want to, but there is

another journey which you have got to take before you can sail

homewards. You must go to the house of Hades and of dread Proserpine

to consult the ghost of the blind Theban prophet Teiresias whose

reason is still unshaken. To him alone has Proserpine left his

understanding even in death, but the other ghosts flit about

aimlessly.'

  "I was dismayed when I heard this. I sat up in bed and wept, and

would gladly have lived no longer to see the light of the sun, but

presently when I was tired of weeping and tossing myself about, I

said, 'And who shall guide me upon this voyage- for the house of Hades

is a port that no ship can reach.'

  "'You will want no guide,' she answered; 'raise you mast, set your

white sails, sit quite still, and the North Wind will blow you there

of itself. When your ship has traversed the waters of Oceanus, you

will reach the fertile shore of Proserpine's country with its groves

of tall poplars and willows that shed their fruit untimely; here beach

your ship upon the shore of Oceanus, and go straight on to the dark

abode of Hades. You will find it near the place where the rivers

Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus (which is a branch of the river Styx)

flow into Acheron, and you will see a rock near it, just where the two

roaring rivers run into one another.

  "'When you have reached this spot, as I now tell you, dig a trench a

cubit or so in length, breadth, and depth, and pour into it as a

drink-offering to all the dead, first, honey mixed with milk, then

wine, and in the third place water-sprinkling white barley meal over

the whole. Moreover you must offer many prayers to the poor feeble

ghosts, and promise them that when you get back to Ithaca you will

sacrifice a barren heifer to them, the best you have, and will load

the pyre with good things. More particularly you must promise that

Teiresias shall have a black sheep all to himself, the finest in all

your flocks.

  "'When you shall have thus besought the ghosts with your prayers,

offer them a ram and a black ewe, bending their heads towards

Erebus; but yourself turn away from them as though you would make

towards the river. On this, many dead men's ghosts will come to you,

and you must tell your men to skin the two sheep that you have just

killed, and offer them as a burnt sacrifice with prayers to Hades

and to Proserpine. Then draw your sword and sit there, so as to

prevent any other poor ghost from coming near the split blood before

Teiresias shall have answered your questions. The seer will

presently come to you, and will tell you about your voyage- what

stages you are to make, and how you are to sail the see so as to reach

your home.'

  "It was day-break by the time she had done speaking, so she

dressed me in my shirt and cloak. As for herself she threw a beautiful

light gossamer fabric over her shoulders, fastening it with a golden

girdle round her waist, and she covered her head with a mantle. Then I

went about among the men everywhere all over the house, and spoke

kindly to each of them man by man: 'You must not lie sleeping here any

longer,' said I to them, 'we must be going, for Circe has told me

all about it.' And this they did as I bade them.

  "Even so, however, I did not get them away without misadventure.

We had with us a certain youth named Elpenor, not very remarkable

for sense or courage, who had got drunk and was lying on the house-top

away from the rest of the men, to sleep off his liquor in the cool.

When he heard the noise of the men bustling about, he jumped up on a

sudden and forgot all about coming down by the main staircase, so he

tumbled right off the roof and broke his neck, and his soul went

down to the house of Hades.

  "When I had got the men together I said to them, 'You think you

are about to start home again, but Circe has explained to me that

instead of this, we have got to go to the house of Hades and

Proserpine to consult the ghost of the Theban prophet Teiresias.'

  "The men were broken-hearted as they heard me, and threw

themselves on the ground groaning and tearing their hair, but they did

not mend matters by crying. When we reached the sea shore, weeping and

lamenting our fate, Circe brought the ram and the ewe, and we made

them fast hard by the ship. She passed through the midst of us without

our knowing it, for who can see the comings and goings of a god, if

the god does not wish to be seen?





Translated by Samuel Butler






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||| Analysis | Critique | Overview Below |||

.: :.

She passed through the midst of us without
our knowing it, for who can see the comings and goings of a god, if
the god does not wish to be seen?
.

| Posted on 2010-12-05 | by a guest




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